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Flashcards in BARRON12: Abnormal Psychology Deck (47):
1

COMMON CHARACTERISTICS of "abnormality" (4)

- HARMFUL/DISTURBING to individual e.g. agoraphobia (fear of open spaces)
- DISTURBING TO OTHERS e.g. zoophilia
- UNUSUAL, NOT SHARED BY MANY MEMBERS OF THE POPUL. (having visions is atypical in our culture, not in others...)
- IRRATIONAL: (doesn't make sense to average person); e.g. prolonged depression.

2

"INSANITY" as a legal term?...

- LEGAL: used to differentiate ppl who can be held ENTIRELY RESPONSIBLE for their crimes (the sane) and those ppl, who, because of a pyschological disorder(not craziness in general), cannot be held fully for their actions.

3

The DSM employs a .. approach to diagnosis, based on the belief that .. .. affect a person's mental health. Typically, when a psychologist first meets with a client, the psychologist assesses the client on .. ..

- MULTIAXIAL
- MANY FACTORS
- FIVE AXES

4

DSM multiaxial approach? (5)

- AXIS I: general clinical disorder
- AXIS II: personality disorders and mental retardation?
- AXIS III: medical conditions?
- AXIS IV: psychosocial/environmental problems? e.g. breakup, new school...
- AXIS V: global assessment of functioning (GAF) 1 is bad, 100 is good

5

Note: most clinical psychologists do not subscribe strictly to one perspective or another. Rather, most psychologist are .., which means that they accept and use .. from a number of different ...

- ECLECTIC
- IDEAS
- PERSPECTIVES

6

Different perspectives on the causes of psychological disorders? (6)

- PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSYCHODYNAMIC
- HUMANISTIC (failure to strive toward one's potential, being out of touch with feelings)
- BEHAVIORAL (reinforcement history)
- COGNITIVE (irrational, dysfunctional ways of thinking0
- SOCIOCULTURAL (racism, gender...)
- BIOMEDICAL (biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions...)

7

Types of ANXIETY DISORDERS? (5)

- PHOBIAS
- GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER (GAD)
- PANIC DISORDER
- OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
- POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

8

Examples of PHOBIAS (4)

- CLAUSTROPHOBIA
- ARACHNOPHOBIA (fear of spiders)
- AGORAPHOBIA (fear of open, public spaces...)
- SOCIAL PHOBIA (fear of a situation in which one could embarrass oneself in public e.g. eating in public, lecture...)

9

Cause of ANXIETY according to PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY?

- CONFLICT b.w desires of the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO
e.g. young woman's repressed sexual attraction to her father may cause a conflict b.w her id, and superego.

10

SOMATOFORM DISORDER? e.g. (2)

- PHYSICAL COMPLAINT without ORGANIC CAUSES
e.g. HYPOCHONDRIASIS (frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate the cause)
CONVERSION DISORDER (report the existence of severe physical problem such as paralysis or blindness)

11

Theories about the CAUSE of SOMATOFORM DISORDERS?

- psychodynamic: outward manifestations of unresolved unconscious conflicts
- behaviorist: being reinforced for their behaviors --> experience conversion disorders to: avoid unpleasant tasks; get attention

12

Examples of DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS? (3)

- PSYCHOGENIC AMNESIA (person cannot remember things and no physiological basis for the disruption in memory can be identified)
- FUGUE (experience psychogenic amnesia but also find themselves in an unfamiliar environment)
- DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER (DID) --> multiple personality disorder

13

People with D.I.D commonly have a history of .. .. or some other terrible .. ..

- SEXUAL ABUSE
- CHILDHOOD TRAUMA

14

AFFECTIVE DISORDER examples? (4)

- (experiences extreme or inappropriate behavior)
- MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
- SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER
- BIPOLAR DISORDER
- DYSTHYMIC DISORDER (like major depressive disorder except generally less intense..., usually have to be in a period of depressed mood for at least two years...)

15

PSYCHOANALYTIC explanations for MOOD/AFFECTIVE DISORDERS (3)

- product of anger directed INWARD
- LOSS during early PSYCHOSEXUAL stages
- overly punitive SUPEREGO

16

COGNITIVE TRIAD?

- theory that proposes why we get depressed --> unreasonably NEGATIVE ideas of ONESELF, the WORLD, and the person's FUTURE
(proposed by aaron beck)

17

AARON BECK?

- COGNITIVE THEORIST who proposed the cognitive triad.

18

COGNITIVE explanations for MOOD DISORDERS? (2)

- aaron beck's cognitive triad
whether we attribute failure to:
- INTERNAL/EXTERNAL cause (i'm stupid, vs. the class is hard)
- GLOBAL/SPECIFIC cause (i suck at everything! vs. i have trouble with this class)
- STABLE/UNSTABLE cause (i will be always bad at this subject vs. i had a bad day)

19

MARTIN SELIGMAN?

- proposed the idea of LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (--> depression...)

20

What does LEARNED HELPLESSNESS have to do with DEPRESSION?

- depression is often found to CORRELATE POSITIVELY with learned helplessness.
- learned helplessness in depression context: one's past experiences have cause that person to view himself as UNABLE TO CONTROL THE ASPECTS of the future that are controllable.

21

BIOLOGICAL COMPONENTS to AFFECTIVE DISORDERS? (4)

- low levels of SEROTONIN linked with unipolar depression
- ppl who suffer from bipolar disorder have more receptors for ACETYLCHOLINE
- low levels of NOREPINEPHRIN are associated with depression
- the fact that depression responds to somatic treatments (e.g. pills), and the fact that depression and bipolar disorder tends to run in families is indicative that there is a genetic component in affective disorders.

22

FLAT EFFECT?

- (characteristic of DISORGANIZED schizophrenia) NO EMOTIONAL RESPONSE

23

NEOLOGISM?

- (characteristic of DISORGANIZED schizophrenia) MAKE UP THEIR OWN WORDS

24

CLANG ASSOCIATION?

- (characteristic of DISORGANIZED schizophrenia) STRING TOGETHER SERIES OF NONSENSE WORDS THAT RHYME

25

INAPPROPRIATE EFFECT?

- (characteristic of DISORGANIZED schizophrenia) display inappropriate behavior in regards to a certain situation; e.g. laugh at a funeral.

26

WAXY FLEXIBILITY?

- (characteristic of CATATONIC schizophrenia) allow their body to be moved into alternative shapes and will then hold that new pose

27

Theory about the cause of SCHIZOPHRENIA?

- DOPAMINE HYPOTHESIS: high levels of dopamine seem to be associated with schizophrenia.

28

evidence for DOPAMINE HYPOTHESIS? (2)

- antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia result in lowered dopamine levels and decrease in disordered thought. HOWEVER, extensive use of these drugs may cause SIDE EFFECTS (e.g. muscle tremors, stiffness, tardive dyskinesia)
- when given L-Dopa (medicine for parkinson's disease which results in higher dopamine levels...) in excess, leads to schizophrenic like distortions in thought

29

other evidence of BIOLOGICAL BASIS of SCHIZOPHRENIA (apart from dopamine hypothesis)?

- ENLARGED BRAIN VENTRICLES
- BRAIN ASYMMETRIES
- GENETIC PREDISPOSITION (twins, genetic mapping...)

30

DOUBLE BLIND?

- when a person is given CONTRADICTORY MESSAGES e.g. when growing up, sally was continually cautioned by her parents against acting promiscuously while they give her revealing, provocative clothes... --> Sally would be experiencing a double blind

31

DIATHESIS-STRESS MODEL?

- "environment can provide cues for illness (that has a biological predisposition) to express itself"

32

Certain kinds of ENVIRONMENTS can cause/increase likelihood of developing SCHIZOPHRENIA...(2)

- DOUBLE BLIND
- DIATHESIS-STRESS MODEL

33

Schizophrenia:
- tends to strike ppl when...?
- is DISTORTED, DISORDERED thinking often demonstrated thru...
- is often divided into TWO TYPES:

- they enter YOUNG ADULTHOOD
- DELUSIONS(e.g persecution; grandeur...) and/or HALLUCINATIONS
- POSITIVE (excesses in behavior, thought, or mood e.g. neologism, hallucinations) and NEGATIVE (deficits in behavior e.g. flat effect, catatonia)

33

Kinds of SCHIZOPHRENIA (4)

- DISORGANIZED SCHIZOPHRENIC (odd use of language --> neologism, clang association; inappropriate affect; flat effect)
- PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIC (delusions of persecutions, "everybody is out to get me...")
- CATATONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC (engage in odd movements, remain motionless in strange postures...)
- UNDIFFERENTIATED SCHIZOPHRENIC (exhibit disordered thinking but has no symptoms of one of the other types of schizophrenia)

34

(6) CATEGORIES of PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

- ANXIETY DISORDERS
- SOMATOFORM DISORDERS
- DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
- AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
- SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS
- PERSONALITY DISORDERS

35

Examples of PERSONALITY DISORDERS (6)

- ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER (the world is a hostile place...every man needs to look out for himself; INSENSITIVE to others, act in ways that bring PAIN to others--> common among criminals)
- DEPENDENT PERSONALITY DISORDER
- PARANOID PERSONALITY DISORDER
- NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDER
- HISTRIONIC PERSONALITY DISORDER (overly dramatic behavior)
- OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER (less intense than OCD..)

36

What ANXIETY DISORDERS are WOMEN more susceptible to? (3)

- PTSD
- PHOBIC
- GENERALIZED

37

Phobias, generalized anxiety disorders, panic attacks, ocd, ptsd...which disorders usually don't manifest when you enter early adulthood? (2)

- generalized anxiety disorder (usually during middle age)
- ptsd (any given moment, the moment of the trauma)

38

describe the ROSENHAN study

- in 1978, david rosenhan and a number of associates sought a admission to a number of mental hospitals --> "i have been hearing voices." -> sole symptom they report. all are admitted to the institution as suffering from schizophrenia.
- once admitted, they stop reporting any unusual symptoms and behaved as they usually did. NONE of the researchers were exposed as imposters, and all ultimately left the institutions with the diagnosis of schizophrenia in remission. --> while in the institution, anything the researchers did was interpreted as a sign of their disorder

39

The ROSENHAN STUDY, while flawed and widely critqued, raised several important ISSUES: (3)

- should ppl, once diagnosed with a psychological problem, carry the diagnosis for the REST OF THEIR LIVES?
- to what extent are disorders a product of the ENVIRONMENT, and to what extent do they inhere in the individual?
- what is the LEVEL OF INSTITUTIONAL CARE if impostors could go undetected for a period of weeks?

40

PARAPHILIA?

- aka PYSCHOSEXUAL DISORDER --> sexual attraction to an object, person, or activity that is not usually seen as sexual.
e.g. PEDOPHILIA, ZOOPHILIA, FETISHISM

41

VOYEUR?

- person who becomes sexually aroused by watching others engage in some kind of sexual behavior

42

MASOCHIST?

- someone who is aroused by having PAIN INFLICTED ON THEM

43

SADIST?

- someone who is aroused by INFLICTING PAIN ON OTHERS.

44

SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER is a diagnosis made when the use of such substances .. and .. affect a person's life. .. .. is another term for ADDICTION. A person who is disturbed by the use of chemical substances and who is unable to .. .. his or her use of substances suffers from this.

- REGULARLY
- NEGATIVELY
- SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE
- CUT DOWN

45

AUTISM?

- develops early on..autistic children seek LESS SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL CONTACT with others.
- are also SLOW TO DEVELOP LANGUAGE SKILLS and less likely to seek PARENTAL SUPPORT when distressed.

46

Examples of DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS?

- AUTISM
- ADHD
- ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE (typically manifests after 65 years of age)