Chapter 6: Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Learning Deck (74):
1

Learning is commonly defined as a LONG LASTING .. in .. resulting from ..

- CHANGE
- BEHAVIOR
- EXPERIENCE

2

Around the turn of the 20th century, a Russian PHYSIOLOGIST name .. .. inadvertently discovered a kind of .. while studying .. in ..

- IVAN PAVLOV
- LEARNING
- DIGESTION IN DOGS

3

Classical conditioning elements (4)

- UNCONDITIONED/CONDITIONED STIMULUS
- UNCONDITIONED/CONDITIONED RESPONSE

4

ACQUISITION is a stage of the .. processes and occurs when a .. has been ..

- CONDITIONING
- RESPONSE
- ESTABLISHED

5

DELAYED CONDITIONING (1)

- Form of classical conditioning in which the CS comes on and STAYS ON FOR A PERIOD OF TIME before the US is presented

6

TRACE CONDITIONING (1)

- the presentation of the CS, followed by a SHORT BREAK, followed by the presentation of the UCS

7

SIMULTANEOUS CONDITIONING (1)

CS and US are presented at the SAME TIME

8

types of CONDITIONING (4)

- SIMULTANEOUS CONDITIONING
- TRACE ''
- DELAYED ''
- BACKWARD ''

9

BACKWARD CONDITIONING (1)

US is PRESENTED FIRST and is followed by the CS.

10

"sometimes, after a CS has been extinguished and no further training of the animals has taken place, the response briefly reappears upon presentation of the CS.

- SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY

11

In one famous, albeit ethically questionable, study, John .. and Rosalie .. conditioned a little boy named .. to fear a .. ..

- WATSON
- RAYNER
- ALBERT
- WHITE RAT

12

"stop biting their nails, some people paint them with truly horrible tasting materials"

- AVERSIVE CONDITIONING

13

another way to say HIGHER ORDER CONDITIONING

- SECOND ORDER CONDITIONING

14

John .. and Robert .. performed a famous experiment illustrating how RATS MORE READILY LEARNED to make certain ASSOCIATIONS with others.

- GARCIA
- KOELLING

15

"research suggests that animals and humans are biologically prepared to make certain connections more easily than others." (example)

- LEARNED TASTE AVERSION

16

Garcia effect (1)

- the ease with which animals learn TASTE AVERSIONS

17

Edward .. was one of the first people to research OPERANT CONDITIONING

- THORNDIKE

18

OPERANT CONDITIONING (1)

- kind of LEARNING based on CONSEQUENCES of one's BEHAVIORS

19

Edward THORNDIKE was one of the first people to research .. ..

- OPERANT CONDITIONING

20

THORNDIKE put forth the .. .. . that states that if the CONSEQUENCES of a behavior are PLEASANT, the ... connection will be STRENGTHENED and the likelihood of the behavior will increase.

- LAW OF EFFECT
- STIMULUS-RESPONSE

21

THORNDIKE used the term .. .. to describe his work because he believed the CONSEQUENCE was .. in shaping .. ..

- INSTRUMENTAL LEARNING
- INSTRUMENTAL
- FUTURE BEHAVIOR

22

B. F. SKINNER who coined the term .. .., is the best-known PSYCHOLOGIST to research this form of learning.

- OPERANT CONDITIONING

23

(2) kinds of REINFORCEMENTS exist...

- POSITIVE
- NEGATIVE

24

POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT refers to..

- the ADDITION of something PLEASANT

25

NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT refers to..

- the REMOVAL of something UNPLEASANT

26

"usually has a way to deliver food to an animal and a LEVER to press or DISK to peck in order to get the food."

- SKINNER BOX

27

In a SKINNER BOX, the food is the .., and the process of giving food is called the ..

- REINFORCER
- REINFORCEMENT

28

"terminate a loud noise or shock in response to the press of a lever."

- NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT

29

"If Sammy creates a ruckus in the English class he hates and is asked to leave, he is evidencing.."

- ESCAPE BEHAVIOR

30

"If Sammy cuts English class, he is showing.."

- AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR

31

"affecting behavior by using unpleasant consequences."

- PUNISHMENT

32

(2) types of PUNISHMENT

- POSITIVE PUNISHMENT (or simply punishment)
- OMISSION TRAINING/NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT

33

"ADDITION of something UNPLEASANT."

- POSITIVE PUNISHMENT

34

"REMOVAL of something PLEASANT."

- OMISSION TRAINING (NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT)

35

"give a rat an electric shock every time it touches the lever"

- (POSITIVE) PUNISHMENT

36

"remove a rat's food when it touches the lever."

- OMISSION TRAINING

37

"rewarding the rat for doing APPROXIMATIONS of the desired behavior."

- SHAPING

38

"Subjects can also be taught to perform a number of responses successively in order to get a reward. This process is known as .."

- CHAINING

39

"teaching a rat to run through an obstacle course in order to obtain food as a reward."

- CHAINING

40

"occurs when the rat LEARNS to press the LEVER to get the REWARD."

- ACQUISITION

41

"occurs when the rat CEASES to press the LEVER because the REWARD no longer RESULTS from this action."

- EXTINCTION

42

"would occur if, after having EXTINGUISHED the bar press RESPONSE and without providing any further training, the rat began to press the bar again."

- SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY

43

"would be if the rat began to press OTHER THINGS in the Skinner box, or the bar in other boxes."

- GENERALIZATION

44

"would involve teaching the rat to ONLY press a PARTICULAR bar or to press the bar only under CERTAIN CONDITIONS.

- DISCRIMINATION

45

(2) main types of REINFORCERS

- PRIMARY REINFORCERS
- SECONDARY REINFORCERS

46

"special kind of secondary reinforcer because it can be traded for virtually anything. Is called a .. .."

- MONEY
- GENERALIZED REINFORCER

47

"food, water, rest..."

- PRIMARY REINFORCERS

48

"praise, chance to play a video game..."

- SECONDARY REINFORCERS

49

"a form of BEHAVIOR THERAPY that has been used in some MENTAL INSTITUTIONS, PRISONS, and SCHOOLS; patients are rewarded with tokens for APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR and the tokens may be cashed in for valued rewards"

- TOKEN ECONOMY

50

"idea that REINFORCING PROPERTIES of sth DEPEND on the situation."

- PREMACK PRINCIPLE

51

"when you are first teaching a new behavior, rewarding the behavior EACH TIME is best. This process is known as .. .."

- CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT

52

"according to the .. .. .., BEHAVIORS will be more RESISTANT to EXTINCTION if the animal has not been reinforced continuously."

- PARTIAL-REINFORCEMENT EFFECT

53

"provides REINFORCEMENT after a SET NUMBER of RESPONSES."

- FIXED-RATIO SCHEDULE

54

FR-5

- rewarded EVERY TIME (fixed-ratio) after every FIFTH BAR PRESS

55

"a rat on a .. schedule might be rewarded after the 2nd press, the 9th press, the 3rd press...so on; the .. # of presses required to receive the reward will be FIVE

- VR-5 (variable-ratio)
- AVERAGE

56

"In a .. minute schedule the rat will be reinforced for the FIRST BAR PRESS that occurs after 3 MINUTES have passed."

- FI-3 (fixed interval)

57

In a .. minute schedule, the rat will become reinforced for the first response made after an AVERAGE of 3 minutes.

- VI-3 (variable interval)

58

"the tendency for animals to FORGO REWARDS to pursue their TYPICAL PATTERNS of BEHAVIOR."

- INSTINCTIVE DRIFT

59

"pigs refuse to put disks into a bank-like object and tend, instead, to bury the disks in the ground."

- INSTINCTIVE DRIFT

60

"The .. model of CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, is known as the .. .. because it postulates that the more two things are paired, the greater the learning that will take place."

- PAVLOVIAN
- CONTIGUITY MODEL

61

ROBERT .. revised the PAVLOVIAN MODEL to take into account more complex set of circumstances.

- RESCORLA

62

★ types of LEARNING (6)

(COOLAID w/out the D)
- CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
- OPERANT
- OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
- LATENT LEARNING
- ABSTRACT LEARING
- INSIGHT LEARNING

63

RESCORLA's .. model of CLASSICAL CONDITIONING reflects more of a .. spin

- CONTIGENCY
- COGNITIVE

64

OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING is also known as ..

- MODELING

65

Albert BANDURA studied ..

- OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING

66

Edward TOLMAN extensively studied ..

- LATENT LEARNING

67

MODELING has (2) basic components :

- OBSERVATION and IMITATION

68

"learning that becomes OBVIOUS only once a REINFORCEMENT is given for demonstrating it."

- LATENT LEARNING

69

"rats in a MAZE EXPERIMENT; one group with reward, the other without reward."

- LATENT LEARNING

70

"involves understanding concepts such as TREE or SAME rather than learning simply to press a bar or peck a dish in order to secure a reward."

- ABSTRACT LEARNING

71

"pigeons that have been shown a particular shape were rewarded when the picked the SAME SHAPE out of two choices."

- ABSTRACT LEARNING

72

Wolfgang KOHLER is well known for his studies of .. ..

- INSIGHT LEARNING

73

"occurs when one SUDDENLY realizes how to solve a problem."

- INSIGHT LEARNING

74

"GUY WHO DESIGNED EXPERIMENT? room with several boxes, a monkey, and a banana suspended on a string. TYPE OF LEARNING."

- KOHLER
- INSIGHT LEARNING