Study Guide: CHP 9 -- Intelligence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Study Guide: CHP 9 -- Intelligence Deck (16):
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2. FRANCIS GALTON?

- wrote "hereditary genius" and concluded that intelligence passes from generation to generation thru genetic inheritance; exceptional SENSORY ACUITY; coined the phrase "nature vs nurture"; invented the concepts of correlation and percentile test scores.

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2. ALFRED BINET?

- w/ SIMON published the first useful test of general mental ability; required abstract reasoning rather then sensory skills (galton) expressed child's score in terms of "MENTAL AGE"

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2. LEWIS TERMAN?

- revision to binet's test --> stanford-binet test ; incorporated the intelligence quotient (IQ) : mental age/chronological age x 100; could compare children of different ages

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2. DAVID WECHSLER?

- improved measurement of IQ in ADULTS--> wechsler adult intelligence scale; less dependent on verbal ability

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2. SPEARMAN?

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5. How effectively do intelligence tests predict?
- VERBAL, PRACTICAL AND SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE
- SCHOOL SUCCESS
- JOB STATUS
- INCOME

a. high correlation (.9)
b. high correlation
c. medium correlation
d. not very high (.3)

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6. How are GIFTEDNESS and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY defined?

- extreme intellectual performance at the high and low ends of the BELL CURVE (highest 3 percent--> gifted; lowest 3 percent -->
benchmarks typically over 120 and under 80

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7. EVIDENCE for the HERITABILITY of INTELLIGENCE? (3)

- francis galton: intelligence does run in families (but is it genetics?) could just be similar environments
- twin studies: if a pair of identical twins are more similar in intelligence than pairs of fraternal twins, it's presumably because of their greater genetic similarity; average correlation for id. twins (.86); fraternal (.60)
- heritability estimates range from 80% genetic to 40%; consensus tends to hover around 50% --> varies according to the individual

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8. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS that influence IQ scores

- unrelated/related children raised in the same home show significant resemblance in IQ--> indicates that environment influences intelligence
- children in deprived environments experience a gradual decline in IQ as they grow older --> cumulative deprivation hypothesis
- studies show that children scored notably higher on IQ tests that than siblings or peers "left behind" in institutions or disadvantaged homes.
- IQ performance has been rising steadily all of the industrialized world since the 1930s --> flynn effect (attributed to environmental factors)

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9. CULTURAL influences to IQ SCORES? (4)

- average IQ scores for minorities (african americans, native americans, hispanics) is somewhat lower to whites. why?
- 1969: jensen argument--> heritability (80% genetics)
- leon kamin rebuttal: plant coin (white bag and black bag) in two fields (fertile vs. less fertile) --> caused by environmental factors: socioeconomic disadvantage --> parents not there, crime neighborhood, environmental toxins, malnutrition, less learning supplies
- stereotype threat --> ppl blame their failure on racial inferiority or gender inferiority --> contributes to academic underachievement

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9. What BRAIN ACTIVITY is associated with INTELLIGENCE?

- studies have shown that there is a modest correlation between BRAIN SIZE and IQ
- studies have shown th

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10. Identify STERNBERG'S "successful intelligence"

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11. Explain GARDNER's theory of MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES.

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4. Describe the FOUR CHARACTERISTICS of MODERN INTELLIGENCE TESTS. (4)

1. STANDARDIZED UNIFORM PROCEDURES
2. NORMED: RANKED IN RELATION TO OTHERS; YOUR SCORE IN RELATION TO OTHER PPL
3. RELIABILITY; TEST RETEST CONSISTENCY (LIKELY TO GET THE SAME SCORE)
4. MEASURE WHAT IT IS DESIGNED TO MEASURE

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1. Define INTELLIGENCE? (3)

- ted: the ability to impose new order
- cognitive ability
- the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills
- general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning.

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Sternberg has asserted that three facets characterize what he calls "SUCCESSFUL INTELLIGENCE" .. intelligence; .. intelligence; and .. inteligence

- ANALYTICAL
- CREATIVE
- PRACTICAL