Flashcards in Study Guide: CHP 9 -- Intelligence Deck (16)
2. FRANCIS GALTON?
- wrote "hereditary genius" and concluded that intelligence passes from generation to generation thru genetic inheritance; exceptional SENSORY ACUITY; coined the phrase "nature vs nurture"; invented the concepts of correlation and percentile test scores.
2. ALFRED BINET?
- w/ SIMON published the first useful test of general mental ability; required abstract reasoning rather then sensory skills (galton) expressed child's score in terms of "MENTAL AGE"
2. LEWIS TERMAN?
- revision to binet's test --> stanford-binet test ; incorporated the intelligence quotient (IQ) : mental age/chronological age x 100; could compare children of different ages
2. DAVID WECHSLER?
- improved measurement of IQ in ADULTS--> wechsler adult intelligence scale; less dependent on verbal ability
5. How effectively do intelligence tests predict?
- VERBAL, PRACTICAL AND SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE
- SCHOOL SUCCESS
- JOB STATUS
a. high correlation (.9)
b. high correlation
c. medium correlation
d. not very high (.3)
6. How are GIFTEDNESS and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY defined?
- extreme intellectual performance at the high and low ends of the BELL CURVE (highest 3 percent--> gifted; lowest 3 percent -->
benchmarks typically over 120 and under 80
7. EVIDENCE for the HERITABILITY of INTELLIGENCE? (3)
- francis galton: intelligence does run in families (but is it genetics?) could just be similar environments
- twin studies: if a pair of identical twins are more similar in intelligence than pairs of fraternal twins, it's presumably because of their greater genetic similarity; average correlation for id. twins (.86); fraternal (.60)
- heritability estimates range from 80% genetic to 40%; consensus tends to hover around 50% --> varies according to the individual
8. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS that influence IQ scores
- unrelated/related children raised in the same home show significant resemblance in IQ--> indicates that environment influences intelligence
- children in deprived environments experience a gradual decline in IQ as they grow older --> cumulative deprivation hypothesis
- studies show that children scored notably higher on IQ tests that than siblings or peers "left behind" in institutions or disadvantaged homes.
- IQ performance has been rising steadily all of the industrialized world since the 1930s --> flynn effect (attributed to environmental factors)
9. CULTURAL influences to IQ SCORES? (4)
- average IQ scores for minorities (african americans, native americans, hispanics) is somewhat lower to whites. why?
- 1969: jensen argument--> heritability (80% genetics)
- leon kamin rebuttal: plant coin (white bag and black bag) in two fields (fertile vs. less fertile) --> caused by environmental factors: socioeconomic disadvantage --> parents not there, crime neighborhood, environmental toxins, malnutrition, less learning supplies
- stereotype threat --> ppl blame their failure on racial inferiority or gender inferiority --> contributes to academic underachievement
9. What BRAIN ACTIVITY is associated with INTELLIGENCE?
- studies have shown that there is a modest correlation between BRAIN SIZE and IQ
- studies have shown th
10. Identify STERNBERG'S "successful intelligence"
11. Explain GARDNER's theory of MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES.
4. Describe the FOUR CHARACTERISTICS of MODERN INTELLIGENCE TESTS. (4)
1. STANDARDIZED UNIFORM PROCEDURES
2. NORMED: RANKED IN RELATION TO OTHERS; YOUR SCORE IN RELATION TO OTHER PPL
3. RELIABILITY; TEST RETEST CONSISTENCY (LIKELY TO GET THE SAME SCORE)
4. MEASURE WHAT IT IS DESIGNED TO MEASURE
1. Define INTELLIGENCE? (3)
- ted: the ability to impose new order
- cognitive ability
- the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills
- general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning.