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Flashcards in 3: Biological Bases to Behavior Deck (68):
0

LOCATION n FUNCTION of BROCA'S AREA

LOC: LEFT part of PREFONTAL CORTEX
FCT: SPEECH (if damaged, individual can't speak correctly)

1

EEG (2)

- electroencephalograph
- device that monitors the ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY of the brain over time by means of recording ELECTRODES attached to the surface of the SCALP
- different brain WAVE patterns are associated w. dif states of MENTAL ACTIVITY
- diagnosis of brain damage n epilepsy

2

TMS (4)

- new technique that permits scientists to temporarily ENHANCE or DEPRESS activity in a specific area of the brain
- "VIRTUAL LESIONS"
- penetrates 2 CM
- delivered from MAGNET mounted on a small PADDLE

3

lesioning (2)

- involves DESTROYING a piece of BRAIN
- typ. done by inserting an ELECTRODE into a brain structure n passing a high frequency ELECTRIC CURRENT thru it to BURN the tissue n disable the structure
- hunger regulation

4

ESB (3)

- electrical stimulation of the brain
- involves sending a weak ELECTRIC CURRENT into the brain structure to stimulate (ACTIVATE) it.
- mostly conducted on ANIMALS but humans play a role to in the context of BRAIN SURGERY

5

MRI (3)

- magnetic resonance imaging
- uses MAGNETIC fields, radio WAVES, and computer enhancement to map out brain structure
- 3DIMENSIONlAL, hi resolution

6

CT scan (2)

- computerized tomography scan
- computer enhanced XRAY of brain structure
MULTIPLE x rays are shot from many ANGLES, n the computer combines the readings to create image from HORIZONTAL slice of brain

7

LOCATION + FUNCTION of PITUITARY (6)

- LOC: BOTTOM of brain
- FCT: "CAPTAIN of the team"
- "DISTRIBUTOR"
- recieves hormones from the HYPOTHALAMUS
- influences METABOLISM
- "sends hormones that activate OTHERS"

8

LOCATION n FUNCTION of HYPOTHALAMUS

LOC: near base of FOREBRAIN
- under THALAMUS
FCT: BASIC biological needs (4Fs: fighting, fleeing, feeding and f***ing)
- LINK b.w brain n ENDOCRINE system
- controls AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

9

fMRI (2)

- functional magnetic resonance imaging
- monitors BLOOD FLOW and OXYGEN CONSUMPTION in brain to identify areas of HI ACTIVITY

10

LOCATION + FUNCTION of RETICULAR FORMATION

LOC: - runs thru HINDBRAIN n MIDBRAIN
- located at CENTRAL core of BRAINSTEM
FCT: contributes to regulation of MUSCLE reflexes, BREATHING, PAIN perception, SLEEP/AROUSAL

11

LOCATION n FUNCTION of HIPPOCAMPUS?

LOC: LIMBIC system
FCT: role in memory processes
Neurogenesis, conversion of memory to long term

12

LOCATION n FUNCTION of THALAMUS

LOC: strucure in the FOREBRAIN
FCT: relays all SENSORY info (except smell) to dif parts of the CEREBRAL CORTEX
- takes ACTIVE role in integrating information

13

PET scan (3)

- positron emission tomography
- examines BRAIN FUNCTION, mapping brain activity
- RADIOACTIVELY TAGGED chemicals introduced into the brain and serve as MARKERS of blood flow or METABOLIC ACTIVITY

14

LOCATION n FUNCTION of TEMPORAL LOBES

LOC: located near the TEMPLES n beneath the PARIETAL lobe
FCT: contains an area devoted to AUDITORY processing, called the PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX

15

LOCATION n FUNCTION of AMYGDALA

LOC: LIMBIC system
FCT: role in learning of FEAR responses n processing of other basic RESPONSES

16

LOCATION n FUNCTION of CEREBELLUM

LOC: relatively LARGE and deeply FOLDED structure located next to the BACK surface of the BRAINSTEM
FCT: COORDINATION(writing, typing, playing an instrument) n BALANCE
(Alchohol tests)

17

The AMYGDALA is located in the .. .. , at the end of each .. .., and is VITAL to our experiences of .. (--> ...)

- LIMBIC SYSTEM
- HIPPOCAMPAL ARM
- EMOTION
- FEAR

19

The CEREBELLUM is involved with .. (writing, typing, playing an instrument) and .. (alcohol tests)

- COORDINATION
- BALANCE

20

LOCATION n FUNCTION of OCCIPITAL LOBE

LOC: back of the head
FCT: includes cortical area where most VISUAL SIGNALS are sent n visual processing begins
-->PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX

21

LOCATION n FUNCTION of PARIETAL LOBE

LOC: FORWARD of the occipital lobe
FCT: includes area that registers the sense of TOUCH, called the PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX

21

The MEDULLA is part of the .., and attaches to the .. .. It controls largely .. but .. functions (e.g. circulating .., .., sneezing, coughing, ..)

- HIND BRAIN
- SPINAL CORD
- UNCONSCIOUS but VITAL
- BLOOD
- BREATHING
- SALIVATING

22

The LOCUS COERILEUS is located in the .. .. and CONTROLS .. .. .

- FRONTAL LOBE
- ATTENTION TO ENVIRONMENT

24

SEROTONIN plays a prominent role in .. ..

- MOOD CONTROL

25

WERNICKE's AREA is located in the .. .. in the .. ..; it plays a major role in .. .. (damage in this area would lead to ..)

- TEMPORAL LOBE
- LEFT HEMISPHERE
- LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION
- problems with language comprehension duh

26

CORPUS CALLOSUM is the .. of .. that passes between the two .. ..; its FUNCTIONS include .. b/w .. .. and .. ..

BRIDGE of FIBERS
- CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
- COMMUNICATION B/W BRAIN HEMISPHERE
- EYE MOVEMENT

27

"EVERY MOVE you make (talking, walking, breathing) depends on this neurotransmitter, which is released to .. by .. .."

-->ACETYLCHOLINE
- MUSCLES
- MOTOR NEURONS

28

DOPAMINE is used by neurons to control .. .. and plays a role in .. ; the degeneration of such neurons contribute to .. .. (marked by tremors, muscle rigidity, n reduced control over voluntary movements) and .. (+dopamine)

- VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT
- ALERTNESS
- PARKINSON's DISEASE
- SCHIZOPHRENIA

29

GLUTAMATE is an .. .. distributed in the ..; it is .. and contributes to .. and ..; disturbances in gaba circuits may contribute to some types of .. ..

- AMINO ACID
- BRAIN
- EXCITATORY
- LEARNING n MEMORY
- SCHIZOPHRENIA

30

GABA is an .. .. distributed in the ..; it is .. and is involved in the REGULATION of ..; disturbances in gaba circuits may contribute to some types of .. ..

- AMINO ACID
- BRAIN
- INHIBITORY
- ANXIETY
- ANXIETY DISORDERS

31

ENDORPHINS contribute to the MODULATION of .., .. behavior, the body's response to .., and pleasurable feelings of ..

- PAIN
- EATING
- STRESS
- EUPHORIA ("runner's high")

32

SOMA contains the .. .. and much of the .. .. COMMON to MOST cells.

- NUCLEUS
- CHEMICAL MACHINERY

33

DENDRITES definition

- part of neuron that is specialized to RECIEVE INFORMATION

34

AXON definition

- long thin fiber that TRANSMITS SIGNALS away from the SOMA to other NEURONS, or MUSCLES, or GLANDS.

35

"INSULATING material that coats some axons and that acts to SPEED up the transmission of signals that move along the axon."
- if an axon's '' ..., its signals may not be transmitted effectively. --> .. .. (loss of muscle control)

- MYELIN SHEATHE
- DETERIORATES
- MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

36

TERMINAL BUTTONS definition

- small nobs that secrete chemicals called NEUROTRANSMITTER

37

SYNAPSE definition

- JUNCTION where information is transmitted from one neuron to the other

38

GLIAL CELLS are found throughout the .. .. and provide various types of .. for NEURONS. For example, they supply .. and remove .. ..; the .. .. are derived from SPECIAL TYPES of GLIAL CELLS

- NERVOUS SYSTEM
- SUPPORT
- NOURISHMENT
- WASTE PRODUCTS
- MYELIN SHEATHES

38

"Reweighting"

- TERMINAL BUTTONS become BIGGER the more the terminal is USED

39

"Rewiring"

- AXONS and DENDRITES are rerouting if they get cut up

40

What function does each hemisphere perform most efficiently? LEFT (5) RIGHT (4)

LEFT: VERBAL PROCESSING: language, speech, reading n writing
RIGHT: VISUAL, SPATIAL TASKS (localizing a dot, recognizing a face), MUSICAL, perception of EMOTIONS

41

"Reconnecting"

- Dendrites constantly CHANGE/INCREASE their network

42

REUPTAKE (2)

- PROCESS in which NEUROTRANSMITTERS are REABSORBED from the SYNAPTIC CLEFT by the PRESYNAPTIC MEMBRANE
- allows synapses to RECYCLE their materials

43

NEUROTRANSMITTER

- CHEMICALS that TRANSMIT information from one NEURON to another

44

POST SYNAPTIC POTENTIAL (PSP)

- VOLTAGE CHANGE at the RECEPTOR SITE on a POSTSYNAPTIC CELL MEMBRANE
- nature of the PSP (EXCITATORY/INHIBITORY) depends on which receptors are activated

46

"DOWN TIME" (be4 SODIUM gates open again) during this time, another .. .. cannot begin (1-2 milliseconds)"

-->REFRACTORY PERIOD
- ACTION POTENTIAL

47

Excitatory PSP + E.G.

- POSITIVE VOLTAGE SHIFT that INCREASES the LIKELIHOOD that the POSTSYNAPTIC neuron will fire action potentials
- glutamate

47

MIRROR neurons (4)

- discovered in monkey's primary motor cortex
- in prefrontal lobe n parietal lobe
- neurons that are activated by PERFORMING an action or by SEEING another monkey or person perform the same action
- fundamental role in acquisition of new MOTOR SKILLS(n EMPATHY?)

48

Inhibitory PSP + E.G.

- NEGATIVE VOLTAGE SHIFT that DECREASES the LIKELIHOOD that the POSTSYNAPTIC neuron will fire ACTION POTENTIALS
- gaba

49

AFFERENT vs EFFERENT

Afferent (sensory neurons): neurons that send information TO the CNS
Efferent (motor neurons): neurons that recieve information FROM the CNS

50

LOC + FUNCTION + 1 HORMONE of PITUITARY

- LOC: below HYPOTHALAMUS (pea sized)
- FCT: "master gland" of endocrine system: releases VARIETY of hormones, STIMULATING actions in other endocrine glands
- OXYTOCIN (reproductive behaviors)

51

"3Rs"

- rewire, reconnection, reweighting

52

Organization of Nervous System(6)

- CNS (brain n spinal chord)
- PNS (other nerves) :
- SOMATIC
- ANTONOMIC ( heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, glands)
- SYMPATHETIC DIV.: mobilizes bodies resources 4 emergencies
- PARASYMPATHIC DIV.: conserves bodily resources

53

TWIN STUDIES assess .. .. by comparing resemblance of .. (..) and ..(..) twins

- HEREDITARY INFLUENCE
- IDENTICAL (100%)
- FRATERNAL (50%)

54

In FAMILY STUDIES, researchers assess .. .. by examining .. .. to see how much they .. one another on a specific trait. For example, scientists have proved GENETIC INFLUENCES have a role in the development of .. (the more closely related, the more likely to get it)

- HEREDITARY INFLUENCE
- BLOOD RELATIVES
- RESEMBLE
- SCHIZOPHRENIA

55

e.g of how GENOTYPE can determine a BEHAVIORAL phenotype (2)

- certain bird species genetically programmed to set up nests and hatch eggs at certain time
(Bird arrives earlier : advantageous/disadvantageous)
- birds genetically programmed to perform mating dance

56

NOREPINEPHRIN is a .. hormone and .. most related to .. (chemically similar to ..: alertness). When released by the SYMPATHETIC NEURONS to the HEART, it INCREASES .. ..; it underlies the .. .. .. response

- STRESS
- NEUROTRANSMITTER
- CONCENTRATION
- DOPAMINE
- HEART CONTRACTIONS
- FIGHT OR FLIGHT

57

How would an EVOLUTIONARY psychologist explain BEHAVIORAL traits?

- SELECTION of behavioral traits is based off of how much they CONTRIBUTE to REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS

58

MENINGES definition

- SHEATHE protecting SPINAL and BRAIN STEM

59

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID, a .. '..' that CUSHIONS the .., is located inside the .. ..

- NUTRITIVE 'SOUP'
- CORTEX
- BRAIN VENTRICLES

60

NEURAL NETWORKS are all the .. between the ..; connects .. to ..

- PATHWAYS
- NEURONS
- MUSCLES
- ORGANS

61

The THYROID controls the RATE of .., the RAPIDITY of .. .., and the .. of body to other ..

- METABOLISM
- PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
- SENSITIVITY
- HORMONES

63

The ADRENAL GLAND responds to .. by producing .. and .. It also influences .. ..

- STRESS
- EPINEPHRINE n NOREPINEPHRIN
- KIDNEY FUNCTION

64

The PANCREAS regulates....

- SUGAR LEVELS IN THE BLOOD

65

Ovaries produce .., and TESTES produce .. (e.g. ..); these hormones influence .. .. behavior and .. ..

- ESTROGEN
- ANDROGEN
- TESTOSTERONE
- REPRODUCTIVE SEXUAL
- PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

66

"E.g. Alligator turns towards sound of feet and starts padding towards sound"

- LOCUS COERILEUS

67

"a LACK of this NEUROTRANSMITTER is associated with CLINICAL DEPRESSION"

- SEROTONIN

68

The THIN VERTICAL STRIP at the BACK of FRONTAL LOBE controls our .. .. The BOTTOM of the BODY is controlled at the .. of this CORTEX

- VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS
- TOP