Flashcards in 11.3 Quasi-Experimental Designs Deck (19):
____-____ designs address the need to study the effect of an independent variable in settings in which the control features of true experimental designs cannot be achieved.
Quasi-experimental design allows us to examine the impact of an independent variable on a dependent variable, but ____ ____ is much more difficult because quasi-experiments lack important features of true experiments such as random assignment to conditions.
A ___-____ ____-____ design – called a "one-shot case study" – lacks a crucial element of a true experiment: a control or comparison group.
The one-group posttest-only design with its missing comparison group has serious deficiencies in the context of designing an internally valid experiment that would allow us to draw ____ ____ about the effect of the independent variable on a dependent variable.
One way to obtain a comparison is to measure participants before the manipulation (a pretest) and again afterward (a posttest), this is called ___-____ ____-____ design.
The one-group pretest-posttest design fails to take into account several ____ ____ for the outcomes.
____ refers to any event occurs between the first and second measurements but is not part of the manipulation.
____ ____ can be caused by virtually any confounding event that occurs at the same time as the experimental manipulation.
People change over time. Any changes that occur systematically overtime are called ____ ____.
Testing becomes a problem if simply taking the pretest changes the participants behaviour, this is called ____ ____.
Sometimes, the basic characteristics of the measuring instrument change over time; this is called ____ ____.
Sometimes called statistical regression, ____ ____ the ____ is likely to occur whenever participants are selected because they score extremely high or low on some variable.
regression towards the mean
When people are tested again their scores tend to ____ in the direction of the mean. Extremely high scores are likely to become lower, and extremely low scores are likely to become higher.
The ____ ____ ____ design employs a separate control group, but the participants in the two conditions – experimental group and the control group – are not equivalent.
nonequivalent control group
The differences in the nonequivalent control group design become a ____ ____ that provides an alternative explanation for the results.
____ ____ or ____ ____, usually occurs when participants who form the two groups in the experiment are chosen from existing natural groups.
Selection differences or selection bias
The nonequivalent control group ____-____ design is not a true experimental design because assignment to groups is not random; the two groups may not be equivalent. However, it is one of the most useful quasi-experimental designs.
nonequivalent control group pretest–protest
In this nonequivalent control group pretest–protest design, we have the advantage of knowing the ____ scores. Thus, we can see whether the groups were the same on the pretest and where they were different.