Flashcards in 1.2 Goals Of Behavioural Science Deck (10):
Scientific research on behaviour has ____ general goals: to describe behaviour, to predict behaviour, to determine the causes of behaviour, and to understand or explain behaviour.
The scientist begins with careful observation, because the first goal of sciences to ____ ____ – which can be something directly observable (such as running speed, eye gaze, or loudness of laughter) or something less observable (like perceptions of attractiveness).
Another goal of science is to ____ ____. Once it has been observed with some regularity that two events are systematically related to one another, it becomes possible to make predictions.
A third goal of science is to determine the ____ of ____. Although we might accurately predict the occurrence of the behaviour, we might not correctly identify its cause.
causes of behaviour
To know how to ____ behaviour, we need to know the causes of behaviour.
To conclude ____, three things must occur: temporal precedence, covariation of cause and effect, and elimination of alternative explanations.
There is a temporal order of events in which the cause precedes the effect. This is called ____ ____.
When the cause is present, the effect occurs; when the cause is not present, the effect does not occur. This is called ____ of ____ and ____.
covariation of cause and effect
Nothing other than a causal variable could be responsible for the observed effect. This is called ____ of ____ ____.
elimination of alternative explanations