Flashcards in 9.3 Additional Controls Deck (19):
A ____ experimental design has two groups: an experimental group that receives the treatment and a control group that does not.
Use of a control group makes it possible to eliminate a variety of alternative explanations for the results, thus improving ____ ____.
____ ____ are any feature of an experiment that might inform participants of the purpose of the study. They may then do whatever is necessary to confirm the hypothesis.
One way to control for demand characteristics is to use ____ – to make participants think that the experiment to study one thing when it is actually studying something else.
The researcher may also attempt to disguise the dependent variable by using an unobtrusive measure or by placing the measure among a set of unrelated ____ ____ on a questionnaire.
Demand characteristics often may be ____ when people are not aware that an experiment is taking place or that their behaviour is being observed.
In drug trials, sometimes we do not know whether the improvement was caused by properties of the drug or by the participants expectations about the effect of the drug, this is called a ____ ____.
To control for this possibility, a placebo group can be added. Participants in the ____ ____ receive a pill or injection containing a harmless substance; they do not receive the drug given to members of the experimental group.
Placebo effects are ____ and must receive serious study in many areas of research.
Experimenters are usually aware of the purpose of the study and thus may develop expectations about how participants should respond, this problem is called _____ ____ or expectancy effects.
____ ____ may occur whenever the experimenter knows which condition the participants are in.
There are two potential sources of experimenter bias. First, the experimenter might unintentionally treat participants ____ in the various conditions of the study.
There are two potential sources of experimenter bias. Second, bias can occur when experimenters record the behaviours of the participants; subtle differences in the way the experimenter ____ and ____ the behaviours.
interprets and records
Solutions to the expectancy problem. First, experimenters should be well trained and should practice behaving ____ with all participants
Solutions to the expectancy problem. Another solution is to run all conditions ____ so that the experimenters behaviour is the same for all participants.
Solutions to the expectancy problem. Expectancy effects are also minimised with the procedures are ____.
Solutions to the expectancy problem. A final solution is to use experimenters who are ____ of the hypothesis being investigated.
In a ____-____ experiment, the participant is unaware whether a placebo or the actual drug has been administered.