13.2 The t And F Tests Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 13.2 The t And F Tests Deck (20)
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1

The _-____ is commonly used to examine whether two groups are significantly different from each other.

t-test

2

The _ ____ is a more general statistical test that can be used to ask whether there is a difference among three or more groups or to evaluate the results of factorial designs.

F test

3

To use the t distribution to evaluate our data, we need to calculate the value of t from the ____ data and evaluate the ____ t in terms of the sampling distribution of t that is based on the null hypothesis.

obtained

4

If the obtained t has a low probability of occurrence (.05 or less), then the null hypothesis is ____.

rejected

5

The t value is a ratio of two aspects of the data, the difference between the group means and the variability within groups.

t = group difference / within-group variability

6

The group difference is simply the difference between our obtained means; under the null hypothesis, you expect the difference to be zero.

Mean of first group minus mean of second group.

7

The value of t ____ as the difference between your obtained sample means increases.

increases

8

The within-group variability is the amount of variability of scores about the ____.

mean

9

The ____ ____ and the ____ are indicators of how much scores deviate from the group mean.

standard deviation and the variance

10

When comparing two means, you assume that the ____ of ____ are equal to n1 + n2 - 2, or the total number of participants in the groups minus the number of groups, this is called degrees of freedom.

degrees of freedom

11

The degrees of freedom are number of scores ____ to ____ once the means are known.

free to vary

12

A ___-____ test has a specified direction of difference between the two groups. For example, group one will be greater than group two.

one-tailed

13

A ___-____ test does not specify a predicted direction of difference. For example, group 1 will differ from group 2.

two-tailed

14

Whether to specify a one-tailed or two-tailed test will depend on whether you originally designed your study to test a ____ hypothesis.

directional

15

The ____ of ____, or F test, is an extension of the t-test.

analysis of variance

16

The _ ____ is a ratio of two types of variance: systematic variance and error variance.

F statistic

17

____ ____ is the deviation of the group means from the grand mean, or the mean score all individuals and all groups.

Systematic variance

18

____ ____ is the deviation of the individual scores in each group from their respective group means.

Error variance

19

The larger the F ratio is, the more likely it is that the results are ____.

significant

20

After determining that there was a statistically significant effect of the independent variable, researchers will want to know the magnitude of the effect. Therefore, we want to calculate them estimate of ____ ____.

effect size