Flashcards in 13.2 The t And F Tests Deck (20)

Loading flashcards...

1

## The _-____ is commonly used to examine whether two groups are significantly different from each other.

### t-test

2

## The _ ____ is a more general statistical test that can be used to ask whether there is a difference among three or more groups or to evaluate the results of factorial designs.

### F test

3

## To use the t distribution to evaluate our data, we need to calculate the value of t from the ____ data and evaluate the ____ t in terms of the sampling distribution of t that is based on the null hypothesis.

### obtained

4

## If the obtained t has a low probability of occurrence (.05 or less), then the null hypothesis is ____.

### rejected

5

## The t value is a ratio of two aspects of the data, the difference between the group means and the variability within groups.

### t = group difference / within-group variability

6

## The group difference is simply the difference between our obtained means; under the null hypothesis, you expect the difference to be zero.

### Mean of first group minus mean of second group.

7

## The value of t ____ as the difference between your obtained sample means increases.

### increases

8

## The within-group variability is the amount of variability of scores about the ____.

### mean

9

## The ____ ____ and the ____ are indicators of how much scores deviate from the group mean.

### standard deviation and the variance

10

## When comparing two means, you assume that the ____ of ____ are equal to n1 + n2 - 2, or the total number of participants in the groups minus the number of groups, this is called degrees of freedom.

### degrees of freedom

11

## The degrees of freedom are number of scores ____ to ____ once the means are known.

### free to vary

12

## A ___-____ test has a specified direction of difference between the two groups. For example, group one will be greater than group two.

### one-tailed

13

## A ___-____ test does not specify a predicted direction of difference. For example, group 1 will differ from group 2.

### two-tailed

14

## Whether to specify a one-tailed or two-tailed test will depend on whether you originally designed your study to test a ____ hypothesis.

### directional

15

## The ____ of ____, or F test, is an extension of the t-test.

### analysis of variance

16

## The _ ____ is a ratio of two types of variance: systematic variance and error variance.

### F statistic

17

## ____ ____ is the deviation of the group means from the grand mean, or the mean score all individuals and all groups.

### Systematic variance

18

## ____ ____ is the deviation of the individual scores in each group from their respective group means.

### Error variance

19

## The larger the F ratio is, the more likely it is that the results are ____.

### significant

20