Flashcards in 4.1 Validity Deck (32):

0

## ____ validity concerns whether our methods of studying variables are accurate.

### Construct

1

## ____ validity refers to the accuracy of conclusions about cause and effect.

### Internal

2

## ____ validity concerns whether we can generalise the findings of a study to other settings.

### External

3

## A ____ is any event, situation, behaviour, or individual characteristic that varies.

### variable

4

## Any variable must have ___ or more levels or values.

### two

5

## For some variables, the values will have a true numeric, or ____, properties.

### quantitative

6

## The values of other variables are not numeric, but instead simply identify different ____.

### categories

7

## The ____ definition of a variable is the set of procedures used to measure or manipulate it.

### operational

8

## A variable must have an operational definition to be studied ____.

### empirically

9

## The task of developing an operational definition of a variable forces scientists to discuss ____ ____ in concrete terms.

### abstract concepts

10

## Operational definitions also help researchers to ____ their ideas with others.

### communicate

11

## ____ validity refers to the adequacy of the operational definition of variables: Does the operational definition of a variable actually reflect the true theoretical meaning of the variable?

### Construct

12

## Many research studies investigate the ____ between two variables: Do the levels of the two variables vary systematically together?

### relationship

13

## In a ____ ____ relationship, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by increases in the values of the second variable.

### positive linear

14

## In a ____ ____ relationship, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by decreases in the values of the other variable.

### negative linear

15

## In a ____ relationship, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by systematic increases and decreases in the values of the other variable.

### curvilinear

16

## When there is __ relationship between the two variables, the graph is simply a flat line.

### no relationship

17

## A numerical index of the strength of a relationship between variables is called a ____ ____.

### correlation coefficient

18

## Correlation coefficients are very important because we need to know how strongly variables are ____ to one another.

### related

19

## The term ____ implies that there is randomness in events; scientists refer to this as random variability in events that occurred.

### uncertainty

20

## Research is aimed at reducing ____ ____ by identifying systematic relationships between variables.

### random variability

21

## In an experiment, the manipulated variable is the ____ ____.

### independent variable

22

## After manipulating the independent variable, the researchers measure a second variable, called the ____ ____.

### dependent variable

23

## The variable that is considered to be the ____ is called the independent variable and the variable that is the ____ is called the dependent variable.

### cause, effect

24

## When the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable is plotted in a graph, the independent variable is always placed on the ____ axis and the dependent variable is always placed on the ____ axis.

### horizontal, vertical

25

## ____ validity is the ability to draw conclusions about causal relationships from the results of study.

### Internal

26

## A study has high internal validity when strong ____ can be made that one variable caused changes in the other variable.

### inferences

27

## Internal validity one. There must be ____ precedence.

### temporal

28

## Internal validity two. There must be ____ between the two variables

### covariation

29

## Covariation is demonstrated with the experimental method when participants in an ____ condition show the effect, whereas participants in a ____ condition do not show the effect.

### experimental, control

30

## Internal validity three. There is a need to eliminate plausible ____ explanations for the observed relationship.

### alternative

31