4.1 Validity Flashcards Preview

175.203 Psychological Research > 4.1 Validity > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.1 Validity Deck (32):
0

____ validity concerns whether our methods of studying variables are accurate.

Construct

1

____ validity refers to the accuracy of conclusions about cause and effect.

Internal

2

____ validity concerns whether we can generalise the findings of a study to other settings.

External

3

A ____ is any event, situation, behaviour, or individual characteristic that varies.

variable

4

Any variable must have ___ or more levels or values.

two

5

For some variables, the values will have a true numeric, or ____, properties.

quantitative

6

The values of other variables are not numeric, but instead simply identify different ____.

categories

7

The ____ definition of a variable is the set of procedures used to measure or manipulate it.

operational

8

A variable must have an operational definition to be studied ____.

empirically

9

The task of developing an operational definition of a variable forces scientists to discuss ____ ____ in concrete terms.

abstract concepts

10

Operational definitions also help researchers to ____ their ideas with others.

communicate

11

____ validity refers to the adequacy of the operational definition of variables: Does the operational definition of a variable actually reflect the true theoretical meaning of the variable?

Construct

12

Many research studies investigate the ____ between two variables: Do the levels of the two variables vary systematically together?

relationship

13

In a ____ ____ relationship, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by increases in the values of the second variable.

positive linear

14

In a ____ ____ relationship, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by decreases in the values of the other variable.

negative linear

15

In a ____ relationship, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by systematic increases and decreases in the values of the other variable.

curvilinear

16

When there is __ relationship between the two variables, the graph is simply a flat line.

no relationship

17

A numerical index of the strength of a relationship between variables is called a ____ ____.

correlation coefficient

18

Correlation coefficients are very important because we need to know how strongly variables are ____ to one another.

related

19

The term ____ implies that there is randomness in events; scientists refer to this as random variability in events that occurred.

uncertainty

20

Research is aimed at reducing ____ ____ by identifying systematic relationships between variables.

random variability

21

In an experiment, the manipulated variable is the ____ ____.

independent variable

22

After manipulating the independent variable, the researchers measure a second variable, called the ____ ____.

dependent variable

23

The variable that is considered to be the ____ is called the independent variable and the variable that is the ____ is called the dependent variable.

cause, effect

24

When the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable is plotted in a graph, the independent variable is always placed on the ____ axis and the dependent variable is always placed on the ____ axis.

horizontal, vertical

25

____ validity is the ability to draw conclusions about causal relationships from the results of study.

Internal

26

A study has high internal validity when strong ____ can be made that one variable caused changes in the other variable.

inferences

27

Internal validity one. There must be ____ precedence.

temporal

28

Internal validity two. There must be ____ between the two variables

covariation

29

Covariation is demonstrated with the experimental method when participants in an ____ condition show the effect, whereas participants in a ____ condition do not show the effect.

experimental, control

30

Internal validity three. There is a need to eliminate plausible ____ explanations for the observed relationship.

alternative

31

____ validity concerns the extent to which results can be generalised to other populations and settings.

External