Flashcards in 4.1 Validity Deck (32):
____ validity concerns whether our methods of studying variables are accurate.
____ validity refers to the accuracy of conclusions about cause and effect.
____ validity concerns whether we can generalise the findings of a study to other settings.
A ____ is any event, situation, behaviour, or individual characteristic that varies.
Any variable must have ___ or more levels or values.
For some variables, the values will have a true numeric, or ____, properties.
The values of other variables are not numeric, but instead simply identify different ____.
The ____ definition of a variable is the set of procedures used to measure or manipulate it.
A variable must have an operational definition to be studied ____.
The task of developing an operational definition of a variable forces scientists to discuss ____ ____ in concrete terms.
Operational definitions also help researchers to ____ their ideas with others.
____ validity refers to the adequacy of the operational definition of variables: Does the operational definition of a variable actually reflect the true theoretical meaning of the variable?
Many research studies investigate the ____ between two variables: Do the levels of the two variables vary systematically together?
In a ____ ____ relationship, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by increases in the values of the second variable.
In a ____ ____ relationship, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by decreases in the values of the other variable.
In a ____ relationship, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by systematic increases and decreases in the values of the other variable.
When there is __ relationship between the two variables, the graph is simply a flat line.
A numerical index of the strength of a relationship between variables is called a ____ ____.
Correlation coefficients are very important because we need to know how strongly variables are ____ to one another.
The term ____ implies that there is randomness in events; scientists refer to this as random variability in events that occurred.
Research is aimed at reducing ____ ____ by identifying systematic relationships between variables.
In an experiment, the manipulated variable is the ____ ____.
After manipulating the independent variable, the researchers measure a second variable, called the ____ ____.
The variable that is considered to be the ____ is called the independent variable and the variable that is the ____ is called the dependent variable.
When the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable is plotted in a graph, the independent variable is always placed on the ____ axis and the dependent variable is always placed on the ____ axis.
____ validity is the ability to draw conclusions about causal relationships from the results of study.
A study has high internal validity when strong ____ can be made that one variable caused changes in the other variable.
Internal validity one. There must be ____ precedence.
Internal validity two. There must be ____ between the two variables
Covariation is demonstrated with the experimental method when participants in an ____ condition show the effect, whereas participants in a ____ condition do not show the effect.
Internal validity three. There is a need to eliminate plausible ____ explanations for the observed relationship.