Flashcards in 8.1 Experimental Design Deck (38):

0

## The independent variable has a minimum of two levels, an ____ group and a ____ group.

### experimental, control

1

## The simplest possible ____ ____ has two variables: the independent variable and the dependent variable.

### experimental design

2

## The experimental method involves control of ____ ____, through either keeping such variables constant or using randomisation to make sure that any extraneous variable will affect both groups equally.

### extraneous variables

3

## A researcher using a ____-____ design must obtain two equivalent groups of participants, introduce the independent variable, and measure the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

### posttest-only

4

## In a posttest-only design the procedures used must achieve equivalent groups to eliminate any potential ____ ____: the people selected to be in the conditions cannot differ in any systematic way.

### selection differences

5

## In the posttest-only design the researcher must choose ___ ___ of the independent variable, such as an experimental group that receives treatment and a control group that does not.

### two levels

6

## In the posttest-only design, the effect of the independent variable is ____. The same measurement procedure is used for both groups, so that the comparison of the two groups is possible.

### measured

7

## In a ____ -____ design a pretest is given before experimental manipulation is introduced.

### pretest-posttest

8

## The pretest-posttest design makes it possible to ascertain that the groups were, in fact, ____ at the beginning of the experiment.

### equivalent

9

## With a sufficiently large sample of participants, ____ ____ will produce groups that are virtually identical in all respects.

### random assignment

10

## A pre-test enables the researcher to assess whether the groups are in fact ____ to begin with.

### equivalent

11

## Sometimes, a pretest is ____ to select the participants in the experiment.

### necessary

12

## A pre-test is also necessary whenever there is a possibility that participants will drop out of the experiment; this is most likely to occur in a study that lasts over a long period of time. The dropout factor in experiments is called ____ or ____.

### attrition or mortality

13

## Use of a pre-test enables you to asses the effects of ____; you can look at the pre-test scores of the dropouts and know whether their scores differ from the scores of the individuals completing the study.

### attrition

14

## One disadvantage of a pre-test, however, is that it may be ____-____ and awkward to administer in the context of the particular experimental procedures being used.

### time-consuming

15

## Perhaps most important, the pretest can ____ participants to what you're studying, enabling them to figure out your hypothesis.

### sensitise

16

## An ____ ____ design is where participants are randomly assigned to the various conditions so that each participates in only one group. A.k.a. between-subjects design.

### independent groups

17

## In an experiment with two conditions, for example, each participant is assigned to both levels of the independent variable, called a ____ ____ design. Each participant is measured after receiving each level of independent variable. A.k.a. within-subjects design.

### repeated measures

18

## In an independent groups design, different participants are assigned to each of the conditions using ____ ____.

### random assignment

19

## In a repeated measures design, the same individuals will participate in ____ conditions.

### both

20

## The repeated measures design has several advantages. An obvious one is that ____ research participants are needed, because each individual will participate in all conditions.

### fewer

21

## An additional advantage of repeated measures designs is that they are extremely sensitive to finding ____ ____ ____ between groups. This is because we have data from the same people in both conditions.

### statistically significant differences

22

## The major problem with the repeated measures design stems from the fact that the different conditions must be presented in a particular ____.

### sequence

23

## The order of presenting the treatments can affect the dependent variable, this is called an ____ ____.

### order effect

24

## Performance on a second task might improve merely because of the practice gained on the first task. This improvement is called a ____ ____, learning effect.

### practice effect

25

## A deterioration in performance from the first to the second condition as the research participant becomes tired, bored, or distracted, is called a ____ ____.

### fatigue effect

26

## It is also possible for the effect of the first treatment to carry over to influence the response to the second treatment, this is known as a ____ ____.

### carryover effect

27

## There are two approaches to dealing with order effects. The first is to employ ____ techniques. The second is to devise a procedure with sufficient ____ between conditions.

### counterbalancing, intervals

28

## With complete ____, all possible orders of presentation of the measures are included in the experiment.

### counterbalancing

29

## A technique to control for order effects without having all possible orders is to construct a ____ ____.

### Latin Square

30

## A latin square is a ___ __ of ____ constructed to ensure that (1) each condition appears at each ordinal position and (2) each condition precedes and follows each condition one time.

### limited set of orders

31

## Using a Latin square to determine order controls for most ____ ____ without having to include all possible orders.

### order effects

32

## Instead of simply randomly assigning participants to groups, in the ____ ____ design, the goal is to first match people on a particular variable.

### matched pairs

33

## In the matched pairs design the matching variable will be either the ____ ____ or a variable that is strongly related to the dependent variable.

### dependent measure

34

## When using a matched pairs design, the first step is to obtain a measure of the matching variable from each ____ . The participants are then rank ordered from highest to lowest based on the scores on the matching variable.

### individual

35

## Researchers can form matched pairs that are approximately ____ on the characteristic (the highest two participants form the first pair, the next two form the second pair, and so on).

### equal

36

## Finally, in the matched pairs design, the members of each pair are ____ assigned to the conditions in the experiment.

### randomly

37