9.1 Manipulating The Independent Variable Flashcards Preview

175.203 Psychological Research > 9.1 Manipulating The Independent Variable > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.1 Manipulating The Independent Variable Deck (13)
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____ ____ manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentations. Stimuli maybe presented verbally, in written form, by videotape, or with a computer.

Straightforward manipulations

1

Sometimes it is necessary to stage events during the experiment in order to manipulate the independent variable successfully, this is called a ____ ____.

staged manipulation

2

Staged manipulations are most frequently used for two reasons. First, the researcher may be trying to create some sort of ____ ____ in the participants, such is frustration or anger.

psychological state

3

Staged manipulations are most frequently used for two reasons. Second, a staged manipulation may be necessary to ____ some situation that occurs in the real world.

simulate

4

Staged manipulations frequently employ a ____.

confederate

5

The simplest experimental design has two levels of the ____ variable.

independent

6

In planning an experiment, the ____ has to choose these two levels of the independent variable.

researcher

7

A general principle to follow this to make the manipulation as ____ as possible.

strong

8

A strong manipulation ____ the differences between the two groups and increases the chances that the independent variable will have a statistically significant effect on the dependent variable.

maximises

9

A strong manipulation is particularly important in the ____ ____ of research, when the researcher is most interested in demonstrating that a relationship does exist.

early stages

10

The principle of using the strongest manipulation possible should be tempered by at least two considerations. The first concerns the ____ ____ of the study: the strongest possible manipulation may entail a situation that rarely, if ever, it occurs in the real world.

external validity

11

The principle of using the strongest manipulation possible should be tempered by at least two considerations. The second consideration is ____: a manipulation should be as strong as possible within the bounds of ethics.

ethics

12

____ is another factor in the decision about how to manipulate the independent variable.

Cost