Flashcards in 13.1 Understanding Research Results Deck (16):
Inferential statistics are necessary because the results of a given study are based only on data obtained from a single ____ of research participants.
____ ____ allow researchers to (a) assess just how confident they are the results reflect what is true in the larger population, and (b) assess the likelihood that the findings will still occur if the study was repeated over and over.
Inferential statistics are used to determine whether the results match what would happen if we were to conduct the experiment again and again with ____ samples.
With inferential statistics we're asking whether we can infer that the difference in the sample ____ reflects the true difference in the population ____.
means : mean
Inferential statistics allow researchers to make inferences about the true difference in the ____ on the basis of the sample data.
Statistical inference begins with a statement of the null ____ and research (or alternative) ____.
The ____ ____ is simply that the population means are equal – the observed difference is due to random error.
The ____ ____ is that the population means are not equal. It states that the independent variable did have an effect.
The logic of the null hypothesis is this: if we can determine the null hypothesis is ____, then we accept the research hypothesis as ____.
Acceptance of the research hypothesis means that the ____ variable have an effect on the ____ variable.
With ____ ____, a significant result is one of that has a very low probability of occurring if the population means are equal. More simply, significance indicates that there is a low probability that the difference between the obtained sample means was due to random error.
____ is the likelihood of the occurrence of some event or outcome.
The probability required for significance is called the ____ ____. The most common alpha level probability used is .05.
The outcome of the study is considered ____ when there is a .05 or less probability of obtaining the results; that is, there are only five chances in 100 that the results were due to random error in one sample from the population.
If it is very unlikely that random error is responsible for the obtained results, the null hypothesis is ____.