9.2 Measuring The Dependent Variable Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9.2 Measuring The Dependent Variable Deck (14)
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The ____ ____ in most experiments is one of three general types: self-report, behavioural, or physiological.

dependent variable


____-____ can be used to measure attitudes and many other aspects of human thought and behaviour. Rating scales with descriptive anchors (endpoints) are most commonly used.



____ ____ are direct observations of behaviours.

Behavioural measures


____ ____ are recordings of responses of the body.

Physiological measures


Many such physiological measures are available; examples include the ____ ____ ____ (GSR), ____ (EMG), and ____ (EEG).

galvanic skin response, electromyogram, and electroencephalogram


The GSR is a measure of general and emotional arousal and anxiety; it measures the ____ ____ of the skin, which changes when sweating occurs.

electrical conductance


The EMG measures ____ ____ and is frequently used as a measure of tension or stress.

muscle tension


The EEG is a measure of ____ ____ of brain cells. It can be used to record general brain arousal as a response to different situations.

electrical activity


____ ____ ____ (MRI) provides an image of an individual's brain structure.

Magnetic resonance imaging


A ____ ___ (fMRI) allows researcher to scan areas of the brain while a research participant performs a physical or cognitive task.

functional MRI


Although it is convenient to describe single dependent variables, many studies include more than one dependent measure. One reason to use ____ ____ stems from the fact that a variable can be measured in a variety of concrete ways.

multiple measures


The issue of ____ is particularly important when measuring human performance. The dependent variable should be sensitive enough to detect differences between groups.



Sometimes a task is so easy that everyone does well regardless of the conditions. This results in what is called a ____ ____ – the independent variable appears to have no effect on the dependent measure only because participants quickly reach the maximum performance level.

ceiling effect


Opposite to the ceiling effect is a problem that occurs when a task is so difficult that hardly anyone can perform well: this is called a ____ ____.

floor effect