2.1: Cell Theory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.1: Cell Theory Deck (44):
1

What are the 3 main principles of cell theory?

All organisms are composed of one or more cells Cells are the smallest units of life All cells come from pre-existing cells

2

What has helped to gain credibility for the cell theory?

the microscope

3

What did Robert Hooke do and in what year?

1665, First observed cells looking at a piece of cork under a microscope he built

4

Who first observed cells looking at a piece of cork under a microscope he built in 1665?

Robert Hooke

5

What did Antonie van Leeuwenhoek do and in what year?

observed first living cells under a microscope in 1670

6

Who observed first living cells under a microscope in 1670?

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

7

What were the 4 types of cell Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observed?

protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, and muscle fibers

8

What did Antonie van Leeuwenhoek refer to cells as?

animacules

9

Who referred to cells as animacules?

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

10

What did Mathias Schleden say in 1838?

Plants are made of “independent, separate beings”

11

What did Louis Pasteur do in the 1860's?

Boiled chicken broth and showed living organisms would not spontaneously reappear

12

What are the 6 functions of life?

metabolism, growth, reproduction, homeostasis, response, nutrition

13

What is metabolism?

all chemical reactions that occur in organisms

14

What are all chemical reactions that occur in organisms?

metabolism

15

What is growth?

always evident in some way

16

What is always evident in some way?

growth

17

What is reproduction?

hereditary molecules passed to offspring

18

What is hereditary molecules passed to offspring?

reproduction

19

What is homeostasis?

maintaining constant internal environment

20

What is maintaining constant internal environment?

homeostasis

21

What is response?

essential for survival

22

What is the essential for survival?

response

23

What is nutrition?

using compounds to provide energy to organisms

24

What is using compounds to provide energy to organisms?

nutrition

25

How does a light microscope work?

light passes through the specimen to form an image

26

How does an electron microscope work?

electrons pass through a specimen to form an image

27

What is the size of most cells?

100 micrometers

28

What is the size of organelles?

10 micrometers

29

What is the size of bacteria?

1 micrometer

30

What is the size of viruses?

100 nano-meters

31

What is the size of the cell membrane (thickness)?

10 nano-meters

32

What is the size of molecules?

1 nano-meter

33

How do you determine the magnification?

size of image/size of specimen

34

Why don't cells keep growing?

surface area to volume ration limits the size of sails

35

What controls what enters and exits the cell?

cell membrane

36

What type of cells can move more materials in and out of the cell?

cells with higher surface area to volume ratios

37

What is the relationship between cell size and surface area?

inverse (large cell have a low surface area and small cells have a high surface area)

38

What is the process cells go through to become multiple cell types?

Cell Differentiation

39

What are two types of cells that lose the ability to reproduce once they differentiate?

nerve cells and muscle cells

40

What is the difference between stem cells and other types of cells?

stem cells Retain the ability to divide and differentiate into various cell types

41

Where are plant stem cells located?

meristematic tissue near roots

42

Where are animal stem cells located?

embryo

43

What type of microscope?

light

44

What type of microscope?

electron

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