Topic 6.4: Gas Exchange Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 6.4: Gas Exchange Deck (15):
1

What is the purpose of ventilation?

Ventilation maintains concentration gradients of oxygen and carbon dioxide between air in alveoli and blood flowing in adjacent capillaries

2

Define ventilation

Ventilation: The exchange of air between the atmosphere and the lungs – achieved by the physical act of breathing

3

Define gas echange

Gas Exchange: The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and bloodstream (via passive diffusion)

4

Define physiological respiration

Physiological respiration involves the transport of oxygen to cells within the tissues, where energy production occurs

5

How is air carried throughout the body?

Air is carried to the lungs in the trachea and bronchi and then to the alveoli in bronchioles

6

Define pneumocytes

Pneumocytes (or alveolar cells) are the cells that line the alveoli and comprise of the majority of the inner surface of the lungs

7

What is the purpose of type I pneumocytes?

Type I pneumocytes are involved in the process of gas exchange between the alveoli and the capillaries

8

What is the purpose of type II pneumocytes?

Type II pneumocytes are responsible for the secretion of pulmonary surfactant, which reduces surface tension in the alveoli

9

What happens when the pressure in the chest is less than the atmospheric pressure?

When the pressure in the chest is less than the atmospheric pressure, air will move into the lungs (inspiration)

10

What happens when the pressure in the chest is greater than the atmospheric pressure?

When the pressure in the chest is greater than the atmospheric pressure, air will move out of the lungs (expiration)

11

What cause the pressure changes inside the thorax that forces air in and out of the lungs?

muscle contractions

12

What are the two muscles responsible for inspiration?

The muscles responsible for inspiration are the diaphragm and external intercostals (plus some accessory muscles)

13

What are the two muscles responsible for expiration?

The muscles responsible for expiration are the abdominal muscles and internal intercostals (plus some accessory muscles)

14

Define spirometry

Spirometry involves measuring the amount (volume) and / or speed (flow) at which air can be inhaled or exhaled

15

Define spirometer

A spirometer is a device that detects the changes in ventilation and presents the data on a digital display

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