Topic 2.4: Proteins Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 2.4: Proteins Deck (36):
1

Amino acids are joined together on the ribosome to form long chains called

polypeptides

2

The covalent bond between the amino acids is called

a peptide bond

3

Define primary structure of protein

The order of the amino acid sequence is called the primary structure and determines the way the chain will fold

4

Define secondary structure of protein

Amino acid sequences will commonly fold into two stable configurations, called secondary structures

5

Define tertiary structure of protein

The overall three-dimensional configuration of the protein is referred to as the tertiary structure of the protein

6

Define quaternary structure of protein

Certain proteins possess a fourth level of structural organisation called a quaternary structure

Quaternary structures are found in proteins that consist of more than one polypeptide chain linked together

7

When do alpha helices occur?

Alpha helices occur when the amino acid sequence folds into a coil / spiral arrangement

8

When do beta-pleated sheets occur?

Beta-pleated sheets occur when the amino acid sequence adopts a directionally-oriented staggered strand conformation

9

Define denaturation

a structural change in a protein that results in the loss (usually permanent) of its biological properties

10

What two conditions can cause denaturation of proteins?

temperature and pH

11

Define proteome

the totality of proteins expressed within a cell, tissue or organism at a certain time

12

collagen and spider silk are examples of what type of protein function?

structure

13

insulin and glucagon are examples of what type of protein function?

hormones

14

immunoglobins are examples of what type of protein function?

immunity

15

hemoglobin and cytochrome are examples of what type of protein function?

transport

16

rhodospin are examples of what type of protein function?

sensation

17

actin and myosin are examples of what type of protein function?

movement

18

rubisco are examples of what type of protein function?

enzymes

19

What are the two main classes of protein tertiary structure?

fibrous proteins and globular proteins

20

Define fibrous proteins

Fibrous proteins are generally composed of long and narrow strands and have a structural role (they are something)

21

Define globular proteins

Globular proteins generally have a more compact and rounded shape and have functional roles (they do something)

22

What is the difference between fibrous proteins and globular proteins in terms of shape?

Fibrous: long and narrow

Globular: round/spherical

23

What is the difference between fibrous proteins and globular proteins in terms of purpose?

Fibrous: structural

Globular: functional

24

What is the difference between fibrous proteins and globular proteins in terms of acid sequence?

Fibrous: repetitive amino acid sequence

Globular: irregular amino acid sequence

25

What is the difference between fibrous proteins and globular proteins in terms of durability?

Fibrous: less sensitive to changes in pH, temperature

Globular: more sensitive to changes in pH, temperature

26

What is the difference between fibrous proteins and globular proteins in terms of solubility?

Fibrous: generally insoluble in water

Globular: generally soluble in water

27

Collagen is an example of what type of protein (globular or fibrous)?

Fibrous protein

28

Myosin is an example of what type of protein (globular or fibrous)?

Fibrous protein

29

Fibrin is an example of what type of protein (globular or fibrous)?

Fibrous protein

30

Actin is an example of what type of protein (globular or fibrous)?

Fibrous protein

31

Keratin is an example of what type of protein (globular or fibrous)?

Fibrous protein

32

Elastin is an example of what type of protein (globular or fibrous)?

Fibrous protein

33

Enzymes is an example of what type of protein (globular or fibrous)?

Globular protein

34

Hemaglobin is an example of what type of protein (globular or fibrous)?

Globular protein

35

Insulin is an example of what type of protein (globular or fibrous)?

Globular protein

36

Immunoglobulin is an example of what type of protein (globular or fibrous)?

Globular protein

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