Topic 2.8: Cell Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 2.8: Cell Respiration Deck (18):
1

Define cell respiration

Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP

2

What are the two main types of cell respiration?

anaerobic respiration and aerobic respiration

3

Define anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration involves the partial breakdown of glucose in the cytosol for a small yield of ATP

4

Define aerobic respiration

Aerobic respiration utilises oxygen to completely break down glucose in the mitochondria for a larger ATP yield

5

Define ATP

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a high energy molecule that functions as an immediate source of power for cell processes

6

What is the first step of anaerobic respiration?

Glycolysis breaks down glucose (6-C) into two molecules of pyruvate (3C), and also produces:

Hydrogen carriers (NADH) from an oxidised precursor (NAD+)
A small yield of ATP (net gain of 2 molecules)

7

After Glycolysis breaks down glucose (6-C) into two molecules of pyruvate (3C) what is the last step of anaerobic respiration?

Anaerobic respiration proceeds in the absence of oxygen and does not result in the production of any further ATP molecules

In animals, the pyruvate is converted into lactic acid (or lactate)
In plants and yeasts, the pyruvate is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide

8

Where does glycolysis occur?

cytoplasm

9

Where does aerobic respiration occur?

mitochondria

10

What happens during aerobic respiration?

Pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide and water, and a large amount of ATP is produced (~34 – 36 molecules)

11

What does aerobic respiration consist of?

Aerobic respiration consists of the link reaction, citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle) and the electron transport chain

12

Define respirometer

A respirometer is a device that determines an organism’s respiration rate by measuring the rate of exchange of O2 and CO2

13

What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration in terms of reactants?

Anaerobic: glucose

Aerobic: glucose and oxygen

14

What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration in terms of combustion?

Anaerobic: incomplete

Aerobic: complete

15

What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration in terms of energy yield?

Anaerobic: low (2 ATP)

Aerobic: High (36-38 ATP)

16

What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration in terms of products?

Anaerobic: Animals: lactic acid
Yeast: Ethanol + CO2

Aerobic: CO2 and H2O

17

What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration in terms of location?

Anaerobic: cytoplasm

Aerobic: cytoplasm and mitochondria

18

What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration in terms of stages?

Anaerobic: glycolysis, fermentation

Aerobic: glycolysis, link reaction, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain

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