Topic 11.3: The Kidney Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 11.3: The Kidney Deck (34)
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1

Define excretion

Excretion is the removal from the body of the waste products of metabolic activities

2

What is label A?

Cortex

3

What is label B?

Renal pelvis

4

What is label C?

Medulla

5

What is label D?

Renal artery

6

What is label E?

Renal vein

7

What is label F?

Ureter

8

What is label A?

Efferent arteriole

9

WHat is label B?

Affernet arteriole

10

WHat is label C?

Glomerulus

11

What is label D?

Bowman's capsule

12

WHat is label E?

Proximal convoluted tubule

13

WHat is label F?

Distal convoluted tubule

14

WHat is label G?

Collecting duct

15

WHat is label H?

Vasa recta

16

What is label I?

Loop of Henle

17

What is function of the afferent arteriole?

Brings blood to the nephron to be filtered

18

What is the function of the efferent arteriole?

Removes blood from nephron (minus filtered components)

19

What is the function of the glomerulus?

Capillary tuft where filtration occurs

20

What is the function of the Bowman's Capsule?

First part of nephron where filtrate is collected

21

What is the function of the proximal convoluted tubule?

Where selective reabsorption occurs

22

What is the function of the loop of henle?

Important for establishing a salt gradient in the medulla

23

What is the function of the distal convoluted tubule?

Final site of selective reabsorption

24

What is the function of the collecting duct?

Feeds into ureter and is where osmoregulation occurs

25

What is the function of the vasa recta?

Blood network that reabsorbs components from the filtrate

26

When does ultrafiltration occur?

Ultrafiltration occurs when hydrostatic pressure forces blood through a semi-permeable membrane, separating blood cells and large proteins from the remainder of the serum

27

Where does ultrafiltration occur?

Ultrafiltration occurs between the glomerulus and the Bowman's capsule

28

How does hydrostatic pressur relate to ultrafiltration?

Hydrostatic Pressure

The glomerulus increases blood pressure by forming narrow branches (which also increases surface area for filtration)

This pressure is maintained by a narrow efferent arteriole (relative to the afferent arteriole), which restricts the outflow of blood, keeping pressure high

The net pressure gradient in the glomerulus forces blood into the capsule space

29

How does the basement membrane relate to ultrafiltration?

Basement Membrane

The basement membrane is a fine mesh that restricts the passage of blood cells and proteins - it is the sole filtration barrier

Blood can exit the glomerulus directly through pores as the capillaries are fenestrated

The filtrate can enter the Bowman's capsule directly because the podocytes that surround the glomerulus contain filtration slits between their pedicels

The basement membrane lies between the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule

30

Define osmoregulation

Osmoregulation is the control of the water balance of the blood, tissue or cytoplasm of a living organism

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