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Flashcards in Topic 4 Deck (132)
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1

Which property of the genetic code allows the transfer of genetic material between species? A. Helical B. Degenerate C. Universal D. Non-overlapping

C. Universal

2

Which techniques of recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) require the use of plasmids? I. Gene therapy II. DNA profiling III. Gene transfer by gene cloning A. I and II only B. II and III only C. I and III only D. I, II and III (answer not here)

Answer is III Only, which is not listed

3

Which mating represents a test cross? (T is the dominant allele and t is the recessive allele.)

A. Tt x tt

B. tt x tt

C. TT x Tt

D. Tt x Tt

A. Tt x tt

4

Which response summarises meiosis?

D

5

Which inheritance traits are shown by ABO blood groups?

I. Sex-linkage

II. Codominance

III. Multiple alleles

A. I and II only B. I and III only C. II and III only D. I, II and III

C. Codominance and Multiple Alleles

6

A father is heterozygous for blood group A while the mother is heterozygous for blood group B. What is the probability of a child being born with the motherís blood group?

A. 0.00 B. 0.25 C. 0.50 D. 0.75

B. 0.25

7

What is a clone? A. A group of organisms which could interbreed and produce fertile offspring B. A group of cells descended from two parent cells C. A group of organisms of the same species living together and interbreeding D. A group of organisms with identical genotype

D. A group of organisms with identical genotype

8

The diagram below is a karyotype of a human. Which statement about the karyotype is correct? A. Non-disjunction has occurred and the individual is female. B. Non-disjunction has not occurred and the individual is female. C. Non-disjunction has occurred and the individual is male. D. Non-disjunction has not occurred and the individual is male.

C. Non-disjunction has occurred and the individual is male.

9

What is the locus of a gene? A. The characteristics that a gene determines B. All the alleles of a gene C. The position of a gene on a chromosome D. The site of translation of a gene

C. The position of a gene on a chromosome

10

The pedigree chart below shows the inheritance of blood groups in a family. What blood group(s) could the children have?

A. Type A only

B. Type A or B only

C. Type A or B or AB only

D. Type A or B or AB or O

C. Type A or B or AB only

11

When red shorthorn cattle are crossed with white shorthorn cattle the offspring are roan, a colour that has both red and white hairs. What does this cross illustrate?

A. Co-dominance

B. Multiple alleles

C. Sex linkage

D. Mutation

A. Co-dominance 

12

What is the name of the process used to copy and amplify minute quantities of deoxyribonucleic acid?

A. DNA profiling

B. Gel electrophoresis

C. Genetic screening

D. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

D. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

13

Which enzymes are needed to produce recombinant plasmids that are used in gene transfer?

A. DNA polymerase and ligase

B. DNA polymerase and restriction enzymes

C. Restriction enzymes and ligase

D. Helicase and restriction enzymes

C. Restriction enzymes and ligase 

14

Explain the use of two named enzymes in biotechnology.

Examples and application: pectinase; obtained from citrus fruits / tomatoes / apples; used in fruit juice production; breaks down pectin allowing cells to separate; assisting in juice formation; juice formed is clear; high juice yield using enzyme; 2nd enzyme: name; source; use; mode of action; advantage of using enzyme; details of enzyme use; [8 max] Possible second example could be meat tenderising – papain from papaya fruit / bromelain from the pineapple plant, biological washing powders – amylases / proteases / lipases, glucose biosensors – glucose oxidase / peroxidase, cheese making – rennin, high fructose syrups – glucose isomerase, breadmaking – fungal amylases / fungal proteases, DNA profiling – DNA ligase, etc.

15

The following is a DNA gel. The results are from a single probe showing a DNA profile for a man, a woman and their four children. 

Which fragment of DNA is the smallest?

A. I

B. II

C. III

D. IV

D. IV

16

What is the initial purpose of sequencing the human genome?

A. To determine the order of genes in a chromosome

B. To determine the number of genes in the nucleus

C. To determine the order of bases in DNA

D. To determine the type of chromosomes in offspring

C. To determine the order of bases in DNA 

17

A couple has four children whose blood types are A, B and AB. What is the likely combination of the parents’ genotypes?

A. IAi and IBi

B. IAi and IBIB

C. IBii and ii

D. IAi and ii

A. IAi and IBi

18

Which information is used when constructing a karyotype?

I. Size of chromosomes

II. Position of the centromere of the chromosome

III. DNA content of the chromosome

A. I only

B. II only

C. I and II only

D. I, II and III

C. I and II only

19

The amount of DNA in a haploid cell of an organism can be represented by X. What would be the quantity of DNA in a cell from the same organism at the start of meiosis?

A. 0.5X

B. X

C. 2X

D. 4X

D. 4X

20

A parent organism of unknown genotype is mated in a test cross. Half of the offspring have the same phenotype as the parent. What can be concluded from this result?

A. The parent is heterozygous for the trait.

B. The trait being inherited is polygenic.

C. The parent is homozygous dominant for the trait.

D. The parent is homozygous recessive for the trait.

A. The parent is heterozygous for the trait. 

21

(b) Outline the differences between the behaviour of the chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. [5]

two divisions in meiosis, only one in mitosis; meiosis results in haploid cells, mitosis in diploid cells; crossing over only occurs in meiosis; no S phase precedes meiosis II; chromosome behaviour in meiosis II and mitosis is similar / chromosome behaviour in meiosis I and mitosis is different; chiasmata only form during meiosis; homologous chromosomes move to the equator in pairs only in meiosis; [5 max] Do not accept number of cells produced - it is a result not a behaviour.

22

What causes Downís syndrome?

A. Non-disjunction in the formation of sex cells

B. Random alignment of chromosomes in the formation of sex cells

C. Gene mutation in the formation of sex cells

D. Crossing over in the formation of sex cells

A. Non-disjunction in the formation of sex cells 

23

What is a test cross used for?

A. To determine if two individuals belong to the same species.

B. To identify the presence of dominant alleles.

C. To identify the presence of recessive alleles.

D. To test the viability of offspring.

C. To identify the presence of recessive alleles. 

24

Which combination of parents could produce children with all of the different ABO blood types?

A. A x B

B. B x O

C. A x AB

D. A x A

A. A x B 

25

What feature in a family pedigree chart would suggest that a trait is sex-linked?

A. Numbers of offspring affected by the condition increased over several generations.

B. Girls only inherit the trait from their mothers.

C. Equal numbers of males and females show the trait.

D. One gender was more commonly affected than the other.

D. One gender was more commonly affected than the other.

26

Which of the following terms best describes the failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis?

A. Codominance

B. Trisomy

C. Crossing over

D. Non-disjunction

D. Non-disjunction

27

A woman of blood group AB marries a man of blood group A, whose father was blood group O. What is the probability that their child will have blood group B?

A. 0 %

B. 25 %

C. 50 %

D. 100 %

B. 25%

28

In addition to blood typing, which of the methods below could be used to determine paternity?

A. PCR

B. DNA profiling

C. Cloning

D. Karyotyping

B. DNA profiling 

29

Which of the following correctly identify the most common end products of mitosis and meiosis?

A. mitosis produces 2 diploid cells while meiosis produces 4 haploid cells

30

What are chromosomes with the same size, banding pattern, centromere location but with different alleles called?

A. Sister chromatids

B. Homologous chromosomes

C. Autosomes

D. Daughter chromosomes 

B. Homologous chromosomes 

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