Topic 1.6: Cell Division Flashcards Preview

HL Biology > Topic 1.6: Cell Division > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 1.6: Cell Division Deck (68)
Loading flashcards...
1

Define cell cycle

an ordered set of events which culminates in the division of a cell into two daughter cells

2

What is an ordered set of events which culminates in the division of a cell into two daughter cells?

cell cycle

3

Define interphase

The stage in the development of a cell between two successive divisions

4

What is The stage in the development of a cell between two successive divisions?

interphase

5

What are the 3 stages of interphase?

G1, S, G2

6

What happens during G1 of interphase?

First intermediate gap stage in which the cell grows and prepares for DNA replication

7

What happens during S of interphase?

Synthesis stage in which DNA is replicated

8

What happens during G2 of interphase?

Second intermediate gap stage in which the cell finishes growing and prepares for cell division

9

What stage of interphase is the First intermediate gap stage in which the cell grows and prepares for DNA replication?

G1

10

What stage of interphase is the Synthesis stage in which DNA is replicated?

S

11

What stage of interphase is the Second intermediate gap stage in which the cell finishes growing and prepares for cell division
?

G2

12

Define M phase

The period of the cell cycle in which the cell and contents divide to create two genetically identical daughter cells

13

What is The period of the cell cycle in which the cell and contents divide to create two genetically identical daughter cells?

M phase

14

What are the two stages of M phase?

mitosis and cytokinesis

15

What happens during mitosis?

Nuclear division, whereby DNA (as condensed chromosomes) is separated into two identical nuclei

16

What happens during cytokinesis of M phase?

Cytoplasmic division, whereby cellular contents are segregated and the cell splits into two

17

What stage of M phase does Nuclear division, whereby DNA (as condensed chromosomes) is separated into two identical nuclei?

mitosis

18

What stage of M phase does Cytoplasmic division, whereby cellular contents are segregated and the cell splits into two?

cytokinesis

19

What happens during interphase of mitosis? (4)

DNA is present as uncondensed chromatin (not visible under microscope)
DNA is contained within a clearly defined nucleus
Centrosomes and other organelles have been duplicated
Cell is enlarged in preparation for division

20

What happens during prophase of mitosis? (4)

DNA supercoils and chromosomes condense (becoming visible under microscope)
Chromosomes are comprised of genetically identical sister chromatids (joined at a centromere)
Paired centrosomes move to the opposite poles of the cell and form microtubule spindle fibres
The nuclear membrane breaks down and the nucleus dissolves

21

What happens during metaphase of mitosis? (3)

Microtubule spindle fibres from both centrosomes connect to the centromere of each chromosome
Microtubule depolymerisation causes spindle fibres to shorten in length and contract
This causes chromosomes to align along the centre of the cell (equatorial plane or metaphase plate)

22

What happens during anaphase of mitosis? (3)

Continued contraction of the spindle fibres causes genetically identical sister chromatids to separate
Once the chromatids separate, they are each considered an individual chromosome in their own right
The genetically identical chromosomes move to the opposite poles of the cell

23

What happens during telophase of mitosis? (4)

Once the two chromosome sets arrive at the poles, spindle fibres dissolve
Chromosomes decondense (no longer visible under light microscope)
Nuclear membranes reform around each chromosome set
Cytokinesis occurs concurrently, splitting the cell into two

24

During what stage of mitosis is DNA is present as uncondensed chromatin (not visible under microscope)?

interphase

25

During what stage of mitosis is DNA is contained within a clearly defined nucleus?

interphase

26

During what stage of mitosis is Centrosomes and other organelles have been duplicated?

interphase

27

During what stage of mitosis is Cell is enlarged in preparation for division?

interphase

28

During what stage of mitosis is DNA supercoils and chromosomes condense (becoming visible under microscope)?

prophase

29

During what stage of mitosis is Chromosomes are comprised of genetically identical sister chromatids (joined at a centromere)?

prophase

30

During what stage of mitosis is Paired centrosomes move to the opposite poles of the cell and form microtubule spindle fibres?

prophase

Decks in HL Biology Class (66):