Topic 11.4: Reproduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 11.4: Reproduction Deck (54)
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1

What is label A?

Spermatozoa

2

What is label B?

Germline epithelium

3

What is label C?

Sertoli cells

4

What is label D?

Leydig cells

5

What is the function of the testes and what are they composed of?

The testes are composed of seminiferous tubules which produce sperm

6

What does the germline epithelium cells line and what will they divide to make?

Each tubule is surrounded by a basement membrane which is lined by germline epithelium cells

The germline epithelium will divide by mitosis to make spermatogonia

7

What will spermatogonia divide by to make?

spermatogonia (which divide by meiosis to make spermatozoa)

8

What are spermatozoa nourished by?

The developing spermatozoa are nourished by Sertoli cells

9

What is the function of leydig cells?

Outside of the tubules are blood capillaries and interstitial cells (Leydig cells), which produce the male sex hormone, testosterone 

10

Outline the processes involved in spermatogenesis within the testes, including mitosis, cell growth, the two divisions of meiosis and cell differentiation (6)

Spermatogenesis describes the production of spermatozoa (sperm) in the seminiferous tubules of the testes

The first stage of sperm production requires the division of germline epithelium by mitosis

These cells (spermatogonia) then undergo a period of growth

This is followed by two meiotic divisions that result in four haploid daughter cells

These haploid cells then differentiate to form sperm cells

The developing sperm cells are nourished throughout by the Sertoli cells

11

What is the role of LH in spermatogenesis?

LH:  Stimulates the interstitial cells (Leydig cells) to produce testosterone

12

What is the role of testosterone in spermatogenesis?

Testosterone:  Stimulates the (second) meiotic division of spermatogonia and the maturation of spermatozoa through differentiation

13

What is the role of FSH in spermatogenesis?

FSH:  Stimulates the (first) meiotic division of spermatogonia

14

What is label A?

corpus albicans

15

What is label B?

corpus luteum

16

WHat is label C?

secondary oocyte

17

What is label D?

Mature (Graafian) follicle

18

What is label E?

Germline epithelium

19

What is label F?

Primordial follicles

20

 function of germline epithelium, primordial follicles, mature follicles and secondary oocyte (5)

The ovary contains follicles in various stages of development

Egg cells within primordial follicles have been arrested in prophase I and have yet to undergo meiotic division

Egg cells within mature follicles have begun meiotic division and are released from the ovary as secondary oocytes (arrested in prophase II)

The ruptured follicle develops into a corpus luteum that will, in time, degenerate into a corpus albicans

The germline epithelium functions as an epithelial layer separating ovarian tissue from the rest of the body - it is not involved in oocyte development

21

Outline the processes involved in oogenesis within the ovary, including mitosis, cell growth, the two divisions of meiosis, the unequal division of cytoplasm and the degeneration of polar body (9)

Oogenesis describes the production of female gametes (ova) within the ovary

The process begins during foetal development, when a large number of cells (oogonia) are formed by mitosis before undergoing a period of growth

These cells begin meiosis but are arrested in prophase I until puberty

At puberty, some follicles continue to develop each month is response to FSH secretion

These follicles complete the first meiotic division to form two cells of unequal size

The cell with less cytoplasm is a polar body (which degenerates), while the larger cell forms a secondary oocyte

The secondary oocyte begins the second meiotic division but is arrested in prophase II (until fertilisation)

It is released from the ovary (ruptured follicle develops into corpus luteum) and, if fertilisation occurs, will complete meiosis

The second meiotic division will produce an ovum and a second polar body

22

WHat is label A?

acrosome

23

what is label B?

nucleus

24

WHat is label C?

centriole

25

What is label D?

mitochondria

26

WHat is label E?

microtubules

27

What is label F?

cortical granules

28

What is label G?

zona pellucida (jelly coat)

29

WHat is label H?

plasma membrane

30

What is label I?

cytoplasm

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