Topic 3.7: Cell Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 3.7: Cell Respiration Deck (8)
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What is cell respiration?(5)

controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP; organic compounds contain stored chemical potential energy in their bonds; when that energy is released, cells can use it for metabolism; glucose (from glycogen stores) typically used first as the source of energy; if there is no glucose then lipids then amino acids/proteins and in extreme cases startvation


What is ATP? (4)

synthesized in mitochondria; energy "currency" of life; high energy molecule that stores energy for just about every cellular process we need; found in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm


What is glycolysis?(5)

glucose enters the cell via the cell membrane and stays in the cytoplasm; after a few modifications and a handful of reactions, glucose is eventually cleaved into 2 pyruvate(3-carbon compound); 2 ATP molecules needed to start; 4 ATP molecules produced; net gain of 2 ATPs


What is anaerobic respiration? (5)

occurs in the cytoplasm; only needs ATP from glycolysis to begin; breakdown of organic molecules for ATP without using oxygen; organisms that do this only are called anaerobes; fermentaion is another word for this; two main pathways in alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation


What is lactic acid fermentation?(7)

type of anaerobic respiration; occurs in humans which is why muscles burn after a workout; normally occurs in aerobic organisms when they are in a situation where it is hard to receive oxygen which is why you breathe harder when working out; pyruvate converted to lactate(3-carbon compound); no CO2 produced; no ATP is produced; when O2 becomes available, lactate is converted back into pyruvate and then pushed through the aerobic pathway


What is alcoholic fermentation?(4)

type of anaerobic respiration; occurs in yeast cells; pyruvate converted to ethanol (2-Carbon compound); CO2 is released


What is aerobic respiration?(5)

occurs in mitochondria; most efficient way to produce ATP; pyruvate loses a Carbon as CO2 and becomes acetyl-CoA; Acetyl-CoA enters Kreb's cycle where two more CO2 molecules are produced, as well as some ATP; byproducts of Kreb's cycle move onto electron transport chain where most ATPs are produced


What is the importance of the cristae in the mitochondria for aerobic respiration?

folds of the mitochondrial cristae provide huge surface area which equals a high efficiency/production

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