Topic 2.6: Structure of DNA and RNA Flashcards Preview

HL Biology > Topic 2.6: Structure of DNA and RNA > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 2.6: Structure of DNA and RNA Deck (15):
1

What are the three principal components of a nucleotide?

Each nucleotide is comprised of three principal components:

5-carbon pentose sugar (pentagon)
Phosphate group (circle)
Nitrogenous base (rectangle)

2

What is the difference between DNA and RNA in terms of pentose sugar?

DNA: deoxyribose

RNA: ribose

3

What is the difference between DNA and RNA in terms of base composition?

DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine

RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil

4

What is the difference between DNA and RNA in terms of number of strands?

DNA: double stranded

RNA: single stranded

5

Adenine binds with what?

thymine

6

Thymine binds with what?

adenine

7

Guanine binds with what?

cytosine

8

Cytosine binds with what?

guanine

9

How many bonds form between adenine and thymine?

two hydrogen bonds

10

How many bonds form between guanine and cytosine?

three hydrogen bonds

11

What are the double-ringed purine nitrogenous bases?

guanine and adenine

12

What are the single-ringed pyrimidine nitrogenous bases?

cytosine, thymine, and uracil

13

Define messenger RNA (mRNA)

Messenger RNA (mRNA) – a transcript copy of a gene which encodes a specific polypeptide

14

Define transfer RNA (tRNA)

Transfer RNA (tRNA) – carries the polypeptide subunits (amino acids) to the organelle responsible for synthesis (ribosome)

15

Define ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – a primary component of the ribosome and is responsible for its catalytic activity

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