Flashcards in Topic 2.6: Structure of DNA and RNA Deck (15):
What are the three principal components of a nucleotide?
Each nucleotide is comprised of three principal components:
5-carbon pentose sugar (pentagon)
Phosphate group (circle)
Nitrogenous base (rectangle)
What is the difference between DNA and RNA in terms of pentose sugar?
What is the difference between DNA and RNA in terms of base composition?
DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
What is the difference between DNA and RNA in terms of number of strands?
DNA: double stranded
RNA: single stranded
Adenine binds with what?
Thymine binds with what?
Guanine binds with what?
Cytosine binds with what?
How many bonds form between adenine and thymine?
two hydrogen bonds
How many bonds form between guanine and cytosine?
three hydrogen bonds
What are the double-ringed purine nitrogenous bases?
guanine and adenine
What are the single-ringed pyrimidine nitrogenous bases?
cytosine, thymine, and uracil
Define messenger RNA (mRNA)
Messenger RNA (mRNA) – a transcript copy of a gene which encodes a specific polypeptide
Define transfer RNA (tRNA)
Transfer RNA (tRNA) – carries the polypeptide subunits (amino acids) to the organelle responsible for synthesis (ribosome)