3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins Flashcards Preview

HL Biology > 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins Deck (55):
1

What are the 4 groups of macromolecules?

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

2

What is a polymer?

long molecule consisting of similar monomers linked by covalent bonds

3

What are the 4 things that occur in condensation reactions in carbohydrates?

1. Joins monomers
2. When the Hydroxyl group connects with a Hydrogen
3. One water is removed
4. Creates covalent bonds

4

What are the 2 things that happen in hydrolysis in carbohydrates?

separates monomers and water is added

5

What are proteins made of?

composed of amino acid monomers

6

What is the shape of proteins based off of?

function

7

What do the structural proteins do?

support

8

What do the storage proteins do?

storage of amino acids

9

What do the transport proteins do?

transport of other substances

10

What do the hormonal proteins do?

control the bodies activities

11

What do the receptor proteins do?

respond to chemical stimuli

12

What do the contractile proteins do?

movement

13

What do the defensive proteins do?

fight bacteria and viruses

14

How are amino acids joined?

Amino acids are joined through peptide bonds to make a polypeptide

15

What is the primary structure of a protein?

amino acid sequence and peptide bonds

16

What are the 3 things about secondary structure of proteins?

1. Polypeptide bends and forms hydrogen bonds
2. a and B sheets
3. R groups are not involved

17

What are the 3 things about tertiary structure?

1. Overall shape
2. R groups are involved in bonding
3. Disulfide bonds and ionic bonds between R groups reinforce the structure

18

What helps build proteins?

chaperonins

19

What is step 1 of a chaperonin?

an unfolded polypeptide enters the cylinder from one end

20

What is step 2 of a chaperonin?

the cap attaches to the end, causing the cylinder to change shape in such a way that it creates a hydrophilic environment for the folding of the polypeptide

21

What is step 3 of a chaperonin?

the cap comes off, and the properly folded protein is released

22

What happens to proteins in high temperatures?

denaturation

23

What is the main function of carbohydrates?

main source of energy

24

What are monosaccharides?

single sugar

25

What are disaccharides?

two sugars joined by a glycosidic linkage (dehydration synthesis)

26

What are the two monomers of maltose?

glucose and glucose

27

What are the two monomers of sucrose?

glucose and fructose

28

What are polysaccharides?

thousands of monomers

29

What are the two polysaccharides in plants?

starch and cellulose

30

What are the two polysaccharides in animals?

glycogen and chitin

31

What is the difference between a and b glucose ring structures?

a group has H on top of OH while b group has OH on top of H

32

What does an a group glucose ring structure make?

starch

33

What does a b group glucose ring structure make?

celluose

34

What are solid triglycerides?

fats

35

What are liquid triglycerides?

oils

36

What are the 3 roles of lipids?

energy storage, thermal insulation, phospholipid bilayer in cell membranes

37

What is the function of fats?

store large amounts of energy

38

What is the function of phospholipids?

used in the cell membrane

39

What is the function of steroids?

cholesterol and hormones

40

What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds?

Organic compounds are compounds containing carbon that are found in living things - except hydrogen carbonates (HCO3-), carbonates (CO32-) and oxides of carbon (CO, CO2)
Inorganic compounds are all other compounds (there are less different inorganic compounds than organic compounds)

41

What is a function of glucose in animals?

A source of energy which can be broken down to form ATP via cellular respiration

42

What is a function of lactose in animals?

A sugar found in the milk of mammals, providing energy for suckling infants

43

What is a function of glycogen in animals?

Used by animals for short term energy storage (between meals) in the liver

44

What is a function of fructose in plants?

Found in honey and onions, it is very sweet and a good source of energy

45

What is a function of sucrose in plants?

Used primarily as a transportable energy form (e.g. sugar beets and sugar cane)

46

What is a function of cellulose in plants?

Used by plant cells as a strengthening component of the cell wall

47

What is the bond between carbohydrates called?

glycosidic linkage

48

What happens in condensation reactions between fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides?

A condensation reaction occurs between the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol and the carboxyl groups of three fatty acids
This reaction forms a triglyceride (and three molecules of water)

49

What happens in hydrolysis between fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides?

When one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group and phospholipid is formed
Hydrolysis reactions will, in the presence of water, break these molecules down into their constituent subunits

50

What is the bond between the glycerol and the fatty acids?

ester linkage

51

What are the 3 similarities between carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?

Complex carbohydrates (e.g. polysaccharides) and lipids both contain a lot of chemical energy and can be used for energy storage
Complex carbohydrates and lipids are both insoluble in water - they are not easily transported
Carbohydrates and lipids both burn cleaner than proteins (they do not yield nitrogenous wastes)

52

What are the 6 differences between carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?

Lipid molecules contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates (about twice as much)
Carbohydrates are more readily digested than lipids and release their energy more rapidly
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are water soluble and easier to transport to and from storage sites than lipids
Animals tend to use carbohydrates primarily for short-term energy storage, while lipids are used more for long-term energy storage
Carbohydrates are stored as glycogen in animals while lipids are stored as fats (in plants carbohydrates are stored as cellulose and lipids as oils)
Lipids have less effect on osmotic pressure within a cell than complex carbohydrates

53

What happens in condensation reactions between amino acids and polypeptides?

A condensation reaction occurs between the amino group (NH2) of one amino acid and the carboxylic acid group (COOH) of another amino acid
This reaction forms a dipeptide (plus a molecule of water) that is held together by a peptide bond
Multiple amino acids can be joined together to form a polypeptide chain

54

What happens in hydrolysis between amino acids and polypeptides?

In the presence of water, polypeptides can be broken down into individual amino acids via hydrolysis reactions

55

What causes sickle cell anemia?

Glutamic acid is replaced by valine.

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