Flashcards in 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins Deck (55):
What are the 4 groups of macromolecules?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
What is a polymer?
long molecule consisting of similar monomers linked by covalent bonds
What are the 4 things that occur in condensation reactions in carbohydrates?
1. Joins monomers
2. When the Hydroxyl group connects with a Hydrogen
3. One water is removed
4. Creates covalent bonds
What are the 2 things that happen in hydrolysis in carbohydrates?
separates monomers and water is added
What are proteins made of?
composed of amino acid monomers
What is the shape of proteins based off of?
What do the structural proteins do?
What do the storage proteins do?
storage of amino acids
What do the transport proteins do?
transport of other substances
What do the hormonal proteins do?
control the bodies activities
What do the receptor proteins do?
respond to chemical stimuli
What do the contractile proteins do?
What do the defensive proteins do?
fight bacteria and viruses
How are amino acids joined?
Amino acids are joined through peptide bonds to make a polypeptide
What is the primary structure of a protein?
amino acid sequence and peptide bonds
What are the 3 things about secondary structure of proteins?
1. Polypeptide bends and forms hydrogen bonds
2. a and B sheets
3. R groups are not involved
What are the 3 things about tertiary structure?
1. Overall shape
2. R groups are involved in bonding
3. Disulfide bonds and ionic bonds between R groups reinforce the structure
What helps build proteins?
What is step 1 of a chaperonin?
an unfolded polypeptide enters the cylinder from one end
What is step 2 of a chaperonin?
the cap attaches to the end, causing the cylinder to change shape in such a way that it creates a hydrophilic environment for the folding of the polypeptide
What is step 3 of a chaperonin?
the cap comes off, and the properly folded protein is released
What happens to proteins in high temperatures?
What is the main function of carbohydrates?
main source of energy
What are monosaccharides?
What are disaccharides?
two sugars joined by a glycosidic linkage (dehydration synthesis)
What are the two monomers of maltose?
glucose and glucose
What are the two monomers of sucrose?
glucose and fructose
What are polysaccharides?
thousands of monomers
What are the two polysaccharides in plants?
starch and cellulose
What are the two polysaccharides in animals?
glycogen and chitin
What is the difference between a and b glucose ring structures?
a group has H on top of OH while b group has OH on top of H
What does an a group glucose ring structure make?
What does a b group glucose ring structure make?
What are solid triglycerides?
What are liquid triglycerides?
What are the 3 roles of lipids?
energy storage, thermal insulation, phospholipid bilayer in cell membranes
What is the function of fats?
store large amounts of energy
What is the function of phospholipids?
used in the cell membrane
What is the function of steroids?
cholesterol and hormones
What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds?
Organic compounds are compounds containing carbon that are found in living things - except hydrogen carbonates (HCO3-), carbonates (CO32-) and oxides of carbon (CO, CO2)
Inorganic compounds are all other compounds (there are less different inorganic compounds than organic compounds)
What is a function of glucose in animals?
A source of energy which can be broken down to form ATP via cellular respiration
What is a function of lactose in animals?
A sugar found in the milk of mammals, providing energy for suckling infants
What is a function of glycogen in animals?
Used by animals for short term energy storage (between meals) in the liver
What is a function of fructose in plants?
Found in honey and onions, it is very sweet and a good source of energy
What is a function of sucrose in plants?
Used primarily as a transportable energy form (e.g. sugar beets and sugar cane)
What is a function of cellulose in plants?
Used by plant cells as a strengthening component of the cell wall
What is the bond between carbohydrates called?
What happens in condensation reactions between fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides?
A condensation reaction occurs between the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol and the carboxyl groups of three fatty acids
This reaction forms a triglyceride (and three molecules of water)
What happens in hydrolysis between fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides?
When one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group and phospholipid is formed
Hydrolysis reactions will, in the presence of water, break these molecules down into their constituent subunits
What is the bond between the glycerol and the fatty acids?
What are the 3 similarities between carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?
Complex carbohydrates (e.g. polysaccharides) and lipids both contain a lot of chemical energy and can be used for energy storage
Complex carbohydrates and lipids are both insoluble in water - they are not easily transported
Carbohydrates and lipids both burn cleaner than proteins (they do not yield nitrogenous wastes)
What are the 6 differences between carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?
Lipid molecules contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates (about twice as much)
Carbohydrates are more readily digested than lipids and release their energy more rapidly
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are water soluble and easier to transport to and from storage sites than lipids
Animals tend to use carbohydrates primarily for short-term energy storage, while lipids are used more for long-term energy storage
Carbohydrates are stored as glycogen in animals while lipids are stored as fats (in plants carbohydrates are stored as cellulose and lipids as oils)
Lipids have less effect on osmotic pressure within a cell than complex carbohydrates
What happens in condensation reactions between amino acids and polypeptides?
A condensation reaction occurs between the amino group (NH2) of one amino acid and the carboxylic acid group (COOH) of another amino acid
This reaction forms a dipeptide (plus a molecule of water) that is held together by a peptide bond
Multiple amino acids can be joined together to form a polypeptide chain
What happens in hydrolysis between amino acids and polypeptides?
In the presence of water, polypeptides can be broken down into individual amino acids via hydrolysis reactions