3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins Flashcards Preview

HL Biology > 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins Deck (55)
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1

What are the 4 groups of macromolecules?

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

2

What is a polymer?

long molecule consisting of similar monomers linked by covalent bonds

3

What are the 4 things that occur in condensation reactions in carbohydrates?

1. Joins monomers
2. When the Hydroxyl group connects with a Hydrogen
3. One water is removed
4. Creates covalent bonds

4

What are the 2 things that happen in hydrolysis in carbohydrates?

separates monomers and water is added

5

What are proteins made of?

composed of amino acid monomers

6

What is the shape of proteins based off of?

function

7

What do the structural proteins do?

support

8

What do the storage proteins do?

storage of amino acids

9

What do the transport proteins do?

transport of other substances

10

What do the hormonal proteins do?

control the bodies activities

11

What do the receptor proteins do?

respond to chemical stimuli

12

What do the contractile proteins do?

movement

13

What do the defensive proteins do?

fight bacteria and viruses

14

How are amino acids joined?

Amino acids are joined through peptide bonds to make a polypeptide

15

What is the primary structure of a protein?

amino acid sequence and peptide bonds

16

What are the 3 things about secondary structure of proteins?

1. Polypeptide bends and forms hydrogen bonds
2. a and B sheets
3. R groups are not involved

17

What are the 3 things about tertiary structure?

1. Overall shape
2. R groups are involved in bonding
3. Disulfide bonds and ionic bonds between R groups reinforce the structure

18

What helps build proteins?

chaperonins

19

What is step 1 of a chaperonin?

an unfolded polypeptide enters the cylinder from one end

20

What is step 2 of a chaperonin?

the cap attaches to the end, causing the cylinder to change shape in such a way that it creates a hydrophilic environment for the folding of the polypeptide

21

What is step 3 of a chaperonin?

the cap comes off, and the properly folded protein is released

22

What happens to proteins in high temperatures?

denaturation

23

What is the main function of carbohydrates?

main source of energy

24

What are monosaccharides?

single sugar

25

What are disaccharides?

two sugars joined by a glycosidic linkage (dehydration synthesis)

26

What are the two monomers of maltose?

glucose and glucose

27

What are the two monomers of sucrose?

glucose and fructose

28

What are polysaccharides?

thousands of monomers

29

What are the two polysaccharides in plants?

starch and cellulose

30

What are the two polysaccharides in animals?

glycogen and chitin

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