3.1 Chemical Elements and Water Flashcards Preview

HL Biology > 3.1 Chemical Elements and Water > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.1 Chemical Elements and Water Deck (33):
1

What is sulfur's example role in plants?

in some amino acids

2

What is sulfur's example role in animals?

in some amino acids

3

What is sulfur's example role in prokaryotes?

in some amino acids

4

What is calcium's example role in plants?

co-factor in some enzymes

5

What is calcium's example role in animals?

co-factor in some enzymes and component of bones

6

What is calcium's example role in prokaryotes?

co-factor in some enzymes

7

What is phosphorus' example role in plants?

phosphate groups in ATP

8

What is phosphorus' example role in animals?

phosphate groups in ATP

9

What is phosphorus' example role in prokaryotes?

phosphate groups in ATP

10

What is iron's example role in plants?

in cytochromes

11

What is iron's example role in animals?

in cytochromes and hemoglobin

12

What is iron's example role in prokaryotes?

in cytochromes

13

What is sodium's example role in plants?

in membrane function

14

What is sodium's example role in animals?

in membrane function and sending nerve impulses

15

What is sodium's example role in prokaryotes?

in membrane function

16

What is cohesion?

water stick's to itself

17

What is adhesion?

water stick's to other things

18

How does water moderate temperature?

absorbing heat from air that is warmer and releasing the stored heat to air that is cooler

19

What don't oceans and lakes freeze?

ice floats

20

What is the overall function of sulfur?

Found in certain amino acids (cysteine and methionine), allowing proteins to form disulphide bonds

21

What is the overall function of calcium?

Found in bones and teeth, also involved in neurotransmitter release in synapses

22

What is the overall function of phosphorus?

Component of nucleic acids and cell membranes

23

What is the overall function of iron?

Found in hemoglobin (animals), allowing for oxygen transport

24

What is the overall function of sodium?

Involved in the generation of nerve impulses in neurons

25

What are the 3 thermal properties of water and their purpose?

Water has a high specific heat capacity (the measure of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of substance by 1°C)
Water has a high heat of vaporisation (amount of energy absorbed per gram as it changes from a liquid to a gas / vapour)
Water has a high heat of fusion (amount of energy required to be lost to change 1 g of liquid to 1 g of solid at 0°C)
These properties occur as a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between water molecules - this allows water to absorb considerable amounts of energy with little change in form (H-bonds need to be broken first)

26

Why do cohesion and adhesion occur?

These properties occur as a result of the polarity of a water molecule and its ability to form hydrogen bonds with appropriate molecules

27

Why does water have its solvent properties?

This occurs because the polar attraction of large quantities of water molecules can sufficiently weaken intramolecular forces (such as ionic bonds) and result in the dissociation of the atoms

28

What can water dissolve?

many organic and inorganic substances that contain electronegative atoms (such as fluorine, oxygen and nitrogen)

29

Why is water important to photosynthesis?

Water is transparent, allowing light to pass through it

30

Where is the cytoplasm located and what reactions occur there?

fluid inside cell but outside organelles; glycolysis/protein synthesis reactions

31

Where is the nucleoplasm located and what reactions occur there?

fluid inside nuclear membrane; DNA replication/transcription

32

Where is the stroma located and what reactions occur there?

fluid inside chloroplast membrane; light-independent reactions of photosynthesis

33

Where is the blood plasm located and what reactions occur there?

fluid in arteries, veins, and capillaries; loading and unloading of respiratory gases/clotting

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