How are eukaryotic cells theorized to form?
How is the nucleus shaped?
Double membrane (nuclear envelope), with pores to allow communication with cytoplasm
When cell is not dividing where are the chromosomes?
not visible. exist in the form of chromatin at this time
What is chromatin made of?
strands of DNA and 8 histones that make up a nucleosome
What is difference in location of nucleus between plant and animal cell?
nucleus centrally located in animal cells, pushed to the side in plant cells
Where are ribosomes manufactured?
What is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm between organelles called?
What is cytosol?
the fluid portion of the cytoplasm between organelles
What does endoplasmic reticulum do (lipids)(2)?
produces lipids and phospholipids for membrane, transports lipid-based compounds
What does endoplasmic reticulum do (sex hormones)?
produces sex hormones
What does endoplasmic reticulum do (drugs)?
detoxification of drugs in liver cells
What does endoplasmic reticulum do (calcium)?
stores calcium ions for muscle contraction
What does endoplasmic reticulum do (glucose)?
aids liver in releasing glucose into bloodstream
What type of endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes?
rough ER has ribosomes on it, smooth Er doesn't
Where are ribosomes located?
attached to rough ER or floating in cytoplasm
What is the difference between ribosomes in eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
Eukaryotes – two subunits equal 80S Prokaryotes – two subunits equal 70S
What does the golgi apparatus consists of?
flattened sacs called cisternae
What is the golgi apparatus responsible for?
Collection, packaging, modification, and distribution of materials
What is responsible for the collection, packaging, modification, and distribution of materials?
Where is the cis side of the golgi apparatus?
near the rough ER
What are lysosomes?
digestive centers that come from golgi apparatus
What do lysosomes do?
break down proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, fuse with old organelles to help recycle them, break down materials brought into cell
What are mitochondria?
“Powerhouse” of the cell, producing usable cellular energy in the form of ATP
What type of ribosomes to mitochondria produce?
What is important about the inner membrane of mitochondria?
Inner membrane is folded into cristae to increase surface area for cellular respiration
What types of cells are chloroplasts located?
algae and plant cells
What part of the chloroplast absorbs light?
What is the stroma?
similar to cytosol, contains enzymes necessary for photosynthesis
What is the centrosome?
Consists of a pair of centrioles at right angle to one another that are involved in assembling microtubules
What are microtubules important for?