2.3 Eukaryotic Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.3 Eukaryotic Cells Deck (90)
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1

How are eukaryotic cells theorized to form?

Endosymbiotic theory

2

How is the nucleus shaped?

Double membrane (nuclear envelope), with pores to allow communication with cytoplasm

3

When cell is not dividing where are the chromosomes?

not visible. exist in the form of chromatin at this time

4

What is chromatin made of?

strands of DNA and 8 histones that make up a nucleosome

5

What is difference in location of nucleus between plant and animal cell?

nucleus centrally located in animal cells, pushed to the side in plant cells

6

Where are ribosomes manufactured?

nucleolus

7

What is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm between organelles called?

cytosol

8

What is cytosol?

the fluid portion of the cytoplasm between organelles

9

What does endoplasmic reticulum do (lipids)(2)?

produces lipids and phospholipids for membrane, transports lipid-based compounds

10

What does endoplasmic reticulum do (sex hormones)?

produces sex hormones

11

What does endoplasmic reticulum do (drugs)?

detoxification of drugs in liver cells

12

What does endoplasmic reticulum do (calcium)?

stores calcium ions for muscle contraction

13

What does endoplasmic reticulum do (glucose)?

aids liver in releasing glucose into bloodstream

14

What type of endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes?

rough ER has ribosomes on it, smooth Er doesn't

15

Where are ribosomes located?

attached to rough ER or floating in cytoplasm

16

What is the difference between ribosomes in eukaryotes and prokaryotes?

Eukaryotes – two subunits equal 80S Prokaryotes – two subunits equal 70S

17

What does the golgi apparatus consists of?

flattened sacs called cisternae

18

What is the golgi apparatus responsible for?

Collection, packaging, modification, and distribution of materials

19

What is responsible for the collection, packaging, modification, and distribution of materials?

golgi apparatus

20

Where is the cis side of the golgi apparatus?

near the rough ER

21

What are lysosomes?

digestive centers that come from golgi apparatus

22

What do lysosomes do?

break down proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, fuse with old organelles to help recycle them, break down materials brought into cell

23

What are mitochondria?

“Powerhouse” of the cell, producing usable cellular energy in the form of ATP

24

What type of ribosomes to mitochondria produce?

70S

25

What is important about the inner membrane of mitochondria?

Inner membrane is folded into cristae to increase surface area for cellular respiration

26

What types of cells are chloroplasts located?

algae and plant cells

27

What part of the chloroplast absorbs light?

thylakoids

28

What is the stroma?

similar to cytosol, contains enzymes necessary for photosynthesis

29

What is the centrosome?

Consists of a pair of centrioles at right angle to one another that are involved in assembling microtubules

30

What are microtubules important for?

cell division

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