2.3 Eukaryotic Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.3 Eukaryotic Cells Deck (90):
1

How are eukaryotic cells theorized to form?

Endosymbiotic theory

2

How is the nucleus shaped?

Double membrane (nuclear envelope), with pores to allow communication with cytoplasm

3

When cell is not dividing where are the chromosomes?

not visible. exist in the form of chromatin at this time

4

What is chromatin made of?

strands of DNA and 8 histones that make up a nucleosome

5

What is difference in location of nucleus between plant and animal cell?

nucleus centrally located in animal cells, pushed to the side in plant cells

6

Where are ribosomes manufactured?

nucleolus

7

What is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm between organelles called?

cytosol

8

What is cytosol?

the fluid portion of the cytoplasm between organelles

9

What does endoplasmic reticulum do (lipids)(2)?

produces lipids and phospholipids for membrane, transports lipid-based compounds

10

What does endoplasmic reticulum do (sex hormones)?

produces sex hormones

11

What does endoplasmic reticulum do (drugs)?

detoxification of drugs in liver cells

12

What does endoplasmic reticulum do (calcium)?

stores calcium ions for muscle contraction

13

What does endoplasmic reticulum do (glucose)?

aids liver in releasing glucose into bloodstream

14

What type of endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes?

rough ER has ribosomes on it, smooth Er doesn't

15

Where are ribosomes located?

attached to rough ER or floating in cytoplasm

16

What is the difference between ribosomes in eukaryotes and prokaryotes?

Eukaryotes – two subunits equal 80S Prokaryotes – two subunits equal 70S

17

What does the golgi apparatus consists of?

flattened sacs called cisternae

18

What is the golgi apparatus responsible for?

Collection, packaging, modification, and distribution of materials

19

What is responsible for the collection, packaging, modification, and distribution of materials?

golgi apparatus

20

Where is the cis side of the golgi apparatus?

near the rough ER

21

What are lysosomes?

digestive centers that come from golgi apparatus

22

What do lysosomes do?

break down proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, fuse with old organelles to help recycle them, break down materials brought into cell

23

What are mitochondria?

“Powerhouse” of the cell, producing usable cellular energy in the form of ATP

24

What type of ribosomes to mitochondria produce?

70S

25

What is important about the inner membrane of mitochondria?

Inner membrane is folded into cristae to increase surface area for cellular respiration

26

What types of cells are chloroplasts located?

algae and plant cells

27

What part of the chloroplast absorbs light?

thylakoids

28

What is the stroma?

similar to cytosol, contains enzymes necessary for photosynthesis

29

What is the centrosome?

Consists of a pair of centrioles at right angle to one another that are involved in assembling microtubules

30

What are microtubules important for?

cell division

31

What type of organism don't have centrioles?

Plants

32

What are vacuoles?

storage organelles formed from Golgi apparatus

33

What do vacuoles store?

nutrients, metabolic waste, toxins, water

34

What do vacuoles allow cells to do?

have high surface area to volume

35

What do vacuoles allow in plants?

allow uptake of water providing rigidity

36

What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in regards to DNA and proteins?

Pcells- Dna in a ring form without protein Ecells- DNA with proteins as chromosomes/chromatin

37

What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in regards to DNA location?

Pcells- DNA free in cytoplasm (nucleoid region) Ecells- DNA enclosed within a nuclear envelope (nucleus)

38

What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in regards to mitochondria?

Pcells- no mitochondria Ecells- mitochondria present

39

What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in regards to ribosomes?

Pcells- 70S ribosomes Ecells- 80S ribosomes

40

What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in regards to internal compartmentalization?

Pcells- No internal compartmentalization to form organelles Ecells- Internal compartmentalization present to form many types of organelles

41

What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in regards to size?

Pcells-Size less than 10 micrometers Ecells-size more than 10 micrometers

42

What is the difference between plant and animal cells in regards to exterior of the cell?

Pcells- exterior of cell includes an outer cell wall with a plasma membrane just inside Acells- exterior of cell includes only a plasma membrane, no cell wall

43

What is the difference between plant and animal cells in regards to chloroplasts?

Pcells- chloroplasts are present in cytoplasm Acells- no chloroplasts

44

What is the difference between plant and animal cells in regards to vacuoles?

Pcells- possess large central vacuoles Acells- vacuoles not ususlly present, or very small

45

What is the difference between plant and animal cells in regards to carbohydrates?

Pcells- store carbohydrates as starch Acells- store carbohydrates as glycogen

46

What is the difference between plant and animal cells in regards to centrioles?

Pcells- do not contain centrioles within a centrosome area Acells- contain centrioles within a centrosome area

47

What is the difference between plant and animal cells in regards to cell shape?

Pcells-because a rigid cell wall is present, this cell type has a fixed angular shape Acells- without a cell wall, this cell is flexible and more likely to be rounded shape

48

What are the exceptions to cell theory?

1) Viruses cannot metabolize or reproduce on their own 2) Skeletal muscle and some fungal hyphae are not divided into cells but have a multinucleate cytoplasm.

49

What is number 1?

pinocytotic vesicle

50

What is number 2?

lysosome

51

What is number 3?

golgi vesicles

52

What is number 4?

rough ER

53

What is number 5?

smooth ER

54

What is number 6?

cell (plasma) membrane

55

What is number 7?

mitochondrion

56

What is number 8?

golgi apparatus

57

What is number 9?

nucleolus

58

What is number 10?

59

What is number 11?

centrioles

60

What is number 12?

microtubules

61

What is number 13?

cytoplasm

62

What is number 14?

ribosome

63

What is number 1?

golgi vesicles

64

What is number 2?

ribosome

65

What is number 3?

smooth ER

66

What is number 4?

nucleolus

67

What is number 5?

nucleus

68

What is number 6?

rough ER

69

What is number 7?

large central vacuole

70

What is number 8?

amyloplast (starch grain)

71

What is number 9?

cell wall

72

What is number 10?

cell membrane

73

What is number 11?

golgi apparatus

74

What is number 12?

chloroplast

75

What is number 13?

vacuole membrane

76

What is number 14?

raphide crystal

77

What is number 15?

druse crystal

78

What is number 16?

mitochondrion

79

What is number 17?

cytoplasm

80

What is number 1?

cristae

81

What is number 2?

matrix

82

What is number 3?

inner membrane

83

What is number 4?

outer membrane

84

What is number 1?

outer membrane

85

What is number 2?

inner membrane

86

What is number 3?

stroma lemellae

87

What is number 4?

stroma

88

What is number 5?

thylakoid

89

What is number 6?

intermembrane space

90

What is number 7?

granum (stack of thylakoids)

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