Topic 1.2: Ultrastructure of Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 1.2: Ultrastructure of Cells Deck (116)
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1

Define prokaryotes

are organisms whose cells lack a nucleus

2

What are organisms whose cells lack a nucleus called?

prokaryotes

3

Define archaebacteria

bacteria found in extreme environments like high temperatures, salt concentrations or pH

4

Define eubacteria

traditional bacteria including most known pathogenic forms

5

What are found in extreme environments like high temperatures, salt concentrations or pH called?

archaebacteria

6

What are traditional bacteria including most known pathogenic forms called?

eubacteria

7

Define cytoplasm

internal fluid component of the cell

8

Define nucleoid

region of the cytoplasm where the DNA is located (DNA strand is circular and called a genophore)

9

Define plasmids

autonomous circular DNA molecules that may be transferred between bacteria (horizontal gene transfer)

10

Define ribosomes

complexes of RNA and protein that are responsible for polypeptide synthesis (prokaryote ribosome = 70S)

11

Define cell membrane

Semi-permeable and selective barrier surrounding the cell

12

Define cell wall

rigid outer covering made of peptidoglycan; maintains shape and prevents bursting (lysis)

13

Define slime capsule

a thick polysaccharide layer used for protection against dessication (drying out) and phagocytosis

14

Define flagella

Long, slender projections containing a motor protein that enables movement (singular: flagellum)

15

Define pili

Hair-like extensions that enable adherence to surfaces (attachment pili) or mediate bacterial conjugation (sex pili)

16

What is the internal fluid component of the cell called?

cytoplasm

17

What is the region of the cytoplasm where the DNA is located (DNA strand is circular and called a genophore) called?

nucleoid

18

What is the autonomous circular DNA molecules that may be transferred between bacteria (horizontal gene transfer) called?

plasmids

19

What are complexes of RNA and protein that are responsible for polypeptide synthesis (prokaryote ribosome = 70S) called?

ribosomes

20

What is the Semi-permeable and selective barrier surrounding the cell called?

cell membrane

21

What is the rigid outer covering made of peptidoglycan; maintains shape and prevents bursting (lysis) called?

cell wall

22

What is a thick polysaccharide layer used for protection against dessication (drying out) and phagocytosis called?

slime capsule

23

What are Long, slender projections containing a motor protein that enables movement (singular: flagellum) called?

flagella

24

What are Hair-like extensions that enable adherence to surfaces (attachment pili) or mediate bacterial conjugation (sex pili) called?

pili

25

Define binary fission

a form of asexual reproduction used by prokaryotic cells

26

What is a form of asexual reproduction used by prokaryotic cells?

binary fission

27

What are the 3 steps to binary fission?

The circular DNA is copied in response to a replication signal

The two DNA loops attach to the membrane

The membrane elongates and pinches off (cytokinesis), forming two cells

28

What is the first step to binary fission?

The circular DNA is copied in response to a replication signal

29

After The circular DNA is copied in response to a replication signal What is the next step to binary fission?

The two DNA loops attach to the membrane

30

After The two DNA loops attach to the membrane What is the next step to binary fission?

The membrane elongates and pinches off (cytokinesis), forming two cells

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