Innate and Learned Behavior Flashcards Preview

HL Biology > Innate and Learned Behavior > Flashcards

Flashcards in Innate and Learned Behavior Deck (22):
1

Define innate behavior

behavior inherited from parents; controlled by genes

2

What are the two basic kinds of movement seen in invertebrate animals?

taxis and kinesis

3

Define taxis

a directed response to a stimulus

4

Define chemotaxis

response to chemicals in the environment

5

Define phototaxis

response to light

6

Define gravitaxis

response to gravity

7

Define rheotaxis

response to water current

8

Define thigmotaxis

response to touch

9

What are two invertebrates used to investigate taxes?

planaria and euglena

10

Define kinesis

a movement in response to a non-directional stimulus

11

Define orthokinesis

when an organism moves slowly or rapidly (changes speed) in response to a stimulus

12

Define klinokinesis

when an organism turns slowly or rapidly in response to a stimulus

13

What organism can be used to test kinesis?

isopods

14

What controls the reflexes?

autonomic nervous system

15

What are the five components of a reflex arc?

receptor cell, sensory neuron, a relay neuron in the spinal cord, and a motor neuron which carries the message to the effector

16

Describe the pain reflex (7)

Receptor cell receive the stimulus
The receptors detect a stimulus and generate a nerve impulse in the sensory neuron
The sensory neurons carry the impulse towards the spinal cord
The axon of the sensory neuron enters the spinal cord and sends a chemical message across synapse to a relay neuron
The relay neurone synapses with the motor neuron and transfers the impulse across the synapse
The motor neuron carries the impulse to an effector
AN effector in an organ that performs the response

17

How the process of learning can improve the chances of survival?

LEARNING: allows an individual to respond to change in the environment, to adjust their behaviour accordingly and increase their chance of survival.

18

Define operant conditioning

Operant conditioning - the use of consequences to modify behaviour

19

Define classical conditioning

Classical conditioning - pairing of a stimuli with a previous neutral stimulus

20

Define observation

Observation - watching repeated behaviour which in turn modifies their own behaviour

21

Define imprinting

Imprinting - learning which occurs at a specific stage of life which is rapid

22

Describe Pavlov's experiments

Used to train dogs
1. Unconditional stimuli and response - automatic response to a stimuli (dogs salivate at sight of food)
2. Neutral stimuli - a stimuli which does not cause a response (ringing a bell)
3. Conditioning - neutral and unconditional stimuli used together (dog begins to associate bell with food and salivates)
4. Conditioned stimulus and response - ringing bell without food causes dog to salivate

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