Topic 5.3: Classification of Biodiversity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 5.3: Classification of Biodiversity Deck (85):
1

Define binomial system of nomenclature

The binomial system of nomenclature is the formal system by which all living species are classified (taxonomy)

According to the binomial system of nomenclature, every organism is designated a scientific name with two parts:

Genus is written first and is capitalised (e.g. Homo)
Species follows and is written in lower case (e.g. Homo sapiens)

2

What are the 3 domains of life?

eukarya, archaea, eubacteria

3

Define eukarya

Eukarya – eukaryotic organisms that contain a membrane-bound nucleus (includes protist, plants, fungi and animals)

4

Define archaea

Archaea – prokaryotic cells lacking a nucleus and consist of the extremophiles (e.g. methanogens, thermophiles, etc.)

5

Define eubacteria

Eubacteria – prokaryotic cells lacking a nucleus and consist of the common pathogenic forms (e.g. E. coli, S. aureus, etc.)

6

Define taxonomy

Taxonomy is the science involved with classifying groups of organisms on the basis of shared characteristics

7

What are the 7 taxa in order?

kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species

8

What is the classification of a human?

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Primate

Family: Hominidae

Genus: Homo

Species: sapiens

9

Describe bryophta

Has no vascularisation (i.e. lacks xylem and phloem)
Has no ‘true’ leaves, roots or stems (are anchored by a root-like structure called a rhizoid)
Reproduce by releasing spores from sporangia (reproductive stalks)
Examples include mosses and liverworts

10

Describe filicinophyta

Has vascularisation (i.e xylem and phloem)
Have leaves, roots and stems (leaves are pinnate – consisting of large fronds divided into leaflets)
Reproduce by releasing spores from clusters called sori on the underside of the leaves
Examples include ferns

11

Describe coniferophyta

Has vascularisation
Have leaves, roots and stems (stems are woody and leaves are waxy and needle-like)
Reproduce by non-motile gametes (seeds) which are found in cones
Examples include pine trees and conifers

12

Define angiospermophyta

Has vascularisation
Have leaves, roots and stems (individual species may be highly variable in structure)
Reproduce by seeds produced in ovules within flowers (seeds may develop in fruits)
Examples include all flowering plants and grasses

13

Which phylum of plants Has no vascularisation (i.e. lacks xylem and phloem)?

Bryophyta

14

Which phylum of plants Has no ‘true’ leaves, roots or stems (are anchored by a root-like structure called a rhizoid)?

Bryophyta

15

Which phylum of plants Reproduce by releasing spores from sporangia (reproductive stalks)?

Bryophyta

16

Which phylum of plants Examples include mosses and liverworts
?

Bryophyta

17

Which phylum of plants Has vascularisation (i.e xylem and phloem)?

Filicinophyta, Coniferophyta, Angiospermophyta

18

Which phylum of plants Have leaves, roots and stems (leaves are pinnate – consisting of large fronds divided into leaflets)?

Filicinophyta

19

Which phylum of plants Reproduce by releasing spores from clusters called sori on the underside of the leaves?

Filicinophyta

20

Which phylum of plants Examples include ferns?

Filicinophyta

21

Which phylum of plants Have leaves, roots and stems (stems are woody and leaves are waxy and needle-like)?

Coniferophyta

22

Which phylum of plants Reproduce by non-motile gametes (seeds) which are found in cones?

Coniferophyta

23

Which phylum of plants Examples include pine trees and conifers?

Coniferophyta

24

Which phylum of plants Have leaves, roots and stems (individual species may be highly variable in structure)?

Angiospermophyta

25

Which phylum of plants Reproduce by seeds produced in ovules within flowers (seeds may develop in fruits)?

Angiospermophyta

26

Which phylum of plants Examples include all flowering plants and grasses?

Angiospermophyta

27

Describe porifera

No body symmetry (asymmetrical)
No mouth or anus (have pores to facilitate the circulation of material)
May have silica or calcium carbonate based spicules for structural support
Examples include sea sponges

28

Describe cnidaria

Have radial symmetry
Have a mouth but no anus (single entrance body cavity)
May have tentacles with stinging cells for capturing and disabling prey
Examples include jellyfish, sea anemones and coral

29

Describe platyhelmintha

Have bilateral symmetry
Have a mouth but no anus (single entrance body cavity)
Have a flattened body shape to increase SA:Vol ratio and may be parasitic
Examples include tapeworms and planaria

30

Describe annelida

Have bilateral symmetry
Have a separate mouth and anus
Body composed of ringed segments with specialisation of segments
Examples include earthworms and leeches

31

Describe mollusca

Have bilaterial symmetry
Have a separate mouth and anus
Body composed of a visceral mass, a muscular foot and a mantle (may produce shell)
Examples include snails, slugs, octopi, squid and bivalves (e.g. clams)

32

Describe anthropoda

Have bilateral symmetry
Have a separate mouth and anus
Have jointed body sections / appendages and have a hard exoskeleton (chitin)
Examples include insects, crustaceans, spiders, scorpions and centipedes

33

Describe chordata

Have bilateral symmetry
Have a separate mouth and anus
Have a notochord and a hollow, dorsal nerve tube for at least some period of their life cycle
Examples include mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish (also invertebrate sea squirts)

34

What phylum of animalia No body symmetry (asymmetrical)?

Porifera

35

What phylum of animalia No mouth or anus (have pores to facilitate the circulation of material)?

Porifera

36

What phylum of animalia May have silica or calcium carbonate based spicules for structural support?

Porifera

37

What phylum of animalia Examples include sea sponges?

Porifera

38

What phylum of animalia Have radial symmetry?

Cnidaria

39

What phylum of animalia Have a mouth but no anus (single entrance body cavity)?

Cnidaria, Platyhelmintha

40

What phylum of animalia May have tentacles with stinging cells for capturing and disabling prey?

Cnidaria

41

What phylum of animalia Examples include jellyfish, sea anemones and coral?

Cnidaria

42

What phylum of animalia Have bilateral symmetry?

Platyhelmintha, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata

43

What phylum of animalia Have a flattened body shape to increase SA:Vol ratio and may be parasitic?

Platyhelmintha

44

What phylum of animalia Examples include tapeworms and planaria?

Platyhelmintha

45

What phylum of animalia Have a separate mouth and anus?

Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata

46

What phylum of animalia Body composed of ringed segments with specialisation of segments?

Annelida

47

What phylum of animalia Examples include earthworms and leeches?

Annelida

48

What phylum of animalia Body composed of a visceral mass, a muscular foot and a mantle (may produce shell)?

Mollusca

49

What phylum of animalia Examples include snails, slugs, octopi, squid and bivalves (e.g. clams)?

Mollusca

50

What phylum of animalia Have jointed body sections / appendages and have a hard exoskeleton (chitin)?

Arthropoda

51

What phylum of animalia Examples include insects, crustaceans, spiders, scorpions and centipedes?

Arthropoda

52

What phylum of animalia Have a notochord and a hollow, dorsal nerve tube for at least some period of their life cycle?

Chordata

53

What phylum of animalia Examples include mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish (also invertebrate sea squirts)?

Chordata

54

Describe fish

Covered in scales made out of bony plates in the skin
Reproduce via external fertilisation (egg and sperm released into the environment)
Breathe through gills that are covered with an operculum
Does not maintain a constant internal body temperature (ectothermic)

55

Describe amphibians

Moist skin, permeable to gases and water
Reproduce via external fertilisation (usually spend larval state in water, adult state on land)
Can breathe through skin but also possess simple lungs
Do not maintain a constant internal body temperature (ectothermic)

56

Describe reptiles

Covered in scales made out of keratin
Reproduce via internal fertilisation and females lay eggs with soft shells
Breathe through lungs that have extensive folding (increases SA:Vol ratio)
Do not maintain a constant internal body temperature (ectothermic)

57

Describe birds

Covered in feathers (made out of keratin)
Reproduce via internal fertilisation and females lay eggs with hard shells
Breathe through lungs with parabronchial tubes
Maintain a constant internal body temperature (endothermic)

58

Describe mammals

Skin has follicles which produce hair made out of keratin
Reproduce via internal fertilisation and females feed young with milk from mammary glands
Breathe through lungs with alveoli
Maintain a constant internal body temperature (endothermic)

59

What chordate of animalia Covered in scales made out of bony plates in the skin?

Fish

60

What chordate of animalia Reproduce via external fertilisation (egg and sperm released into the environment)?

Fish

61

What chordate of animalia Breathe through gills that are covered with an operculum?

Fish

62

What chordate of animalia Does not maintain a constant internal body temperature (ectothermic)?

Fish, Amphibian, Reptiles

63

What chordate of animalia Moist skin, permeable to gases and water?

Amphibian

64

What chordate of animalia Reproduce via external fertilisation (usually spend larval state in water, adult state on land)?

Amphibian

65

What chordate of animalia Can breathe through skin but also possess simple lungs?

Amphibian

66

What chordate of animalia Covered in scales made out of keratin?

Reptiles

67

What chordate of animalia Reproduce via internal fertilisation and females lay eggs with soft shells?

Reptiles

68

What chordate of animalia Breathe through lungs that have extensive folding (increases SA:Vol ratio)?

Reptiles

69

What chordate of animalia Covered in feathers (made out of keratin)?

Birds

70

What chordate of animalia Reproduce via internal fertilisation and females lay eggs with hard shells?

Birds

71

What chordate of animalia Breathe through lungs with parabronchial tubes?

Birds

72

What chordate of animalia Maintain a constant internal body temperature (endothermic)?

Birds, Mammals

73

What chordate of animalia Skin has follicles which produce hair made out of keratin?

Mammals

74

What chordate of animalia Reproduce via internal fertilisation and females feed young with milk from mammary glands?

Mammals

75

What chordate of animalia Breathe through lungs with alveoli?

Mammals

76

Define dichotomous key

A dichotomous key is a method of identification whereby groups of organisms are divided into two categories repeatedly

77

Which domain(s) have membrane lipids with branched hydrocarbons?

Archae

78

Which domain(s) have circular chromosomes?

Archae and Bacteria

79

Which domain(s) lack nuclear envelopes?

Archae and Bacteria

80

Which domain(s) lack membrane bound organelles?

Archae and Bacteria

81

Which domain(s) have methionine as the initiator amino acid for protein synthesis?

Archae and Eukarya

82

Which domain(s) lack peptidoglycan in the cell wall?

Archae and Eukarya

83

Which domain(s) have where growth is not inhibited by streptomycin and chloramphenicol?

Archae and Eukarya

84

Which domain(s) have DNA associated with histones?

Archae and Eukarya

85

Which domain(s) contain several types of RNA polymerase?

Archae and Eukarya

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