Topic 1.1: Introduction to Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 1.1: Introduction to Cells Deck (80)
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1

What are the 3 principles of cell theory?

The cell theory states that:

1. All living things are composed of cells (or cell products)

2. The cell is the smallest unit of life

3. Cells only arise from pre-existing cells

2

What are the 7 basic functions integral to survival?

metabolism, reproduction, sensitivity, homeostasis, excretion, nutrition, and growth

3

Define metabolism (in terms of basic functions needed for survival)

Living things undertake essential chemical reactions

4

Define reproduction (in terms of basic functions needed for survival)

Living things produce offspring, either sexually or asexually

5

Define sensitivity (in terms of basic functions needed for survival)

Living things are responsive to internal and external stimuli

6

Define homeostasis (in terms of basic functions needed for survival)

Living things maintain a stable internal environment

7

Define excretion (in terms of basic functions needed for survival)

Living things exhibit the removal of waste products

8

Define nutrition (in terms of basic functions needed for survival)

Living things exchange materials and gases with the environment

9

Define growth (in terms of basic functions needed for survival)

Living things can move and change shape or size

10

Which of the 7 basic functions integral to survival is: Living things undertake essential chemical reactions?

metabolism

11

Which of the 7 basic functions integral to survival is: Living things produce offspring, either sexually or asexually?

reproduction

12

Which of the 7 basic functions integral to survival is: Living things are responsive to internal and external stimuli?

sensitivity

13

Which of the 7 basic functions integral to survival is: Living things maintain a stable internal environment?

homeostasis

14

Which of the 7 basic functions integral to survival is: Living things exhibit the removal of waste products?

excretion

15

Which of the 7 basic functions integral to survival is: Living things exchange materials and gases with the environment?

nutrition

16

Which of the 7 basic functions integral to survival is: Living things can move and change shape or size?

growth

17

How do you calculate magnification of a drawing or image?

Magnification = Image size (with ruler) ÷ Actual size (according to scale bar)

18

How do you calculate the actual size of a drawing or image?

Actual Size = Image size (with ruler) ÷ Magnification

19

How do light microscopes work?

Light microscopes use visible light and a combination of lenses to magnify images of mounted specimens

20

What type of microscope uses visible light and a combination of lenses to magnify images of mounted specimens?

light microscopes

21

What is the organisation of multicellular organisms?

Cells may be grouped together to form tissues
Organs are then formed from the functional grouping of multiple tissues
Organs that interact may form organ systems capable of carrying out specific body functions
Organ systems collectively carry out the life functions of the complete organism

22

Define cell differentiation

Differentiation is the process during development whereby newly formed cells become more specialised and distinct from one another as they mature

23

What is the process during development whereby newly formed cells become more specialised and distinct from one another as they mature?

differentiation

24

What causes differentiation?

The activation of different instructions (genes) within a given cell by chemical signals will cause it to differentiate

25

How are active genes packaged within the nucleus?

Active genes are usually packaged in an expanded form called euchromatin that is accessible to transcriptional machinery

26

How are inactive genes packaged within the nucleus?

Inactive genes are typically packaged in a more condensed form called heterochromatin (saves space, not transcribed)

27

Define euchromatin

type of chromatin that form when active genes are packed together

28

Define heterochromatin

type of chromatin that form when inactive genes are packed together

29

What are the two qualities of unspecilised cells?

self renewal and potency

30

Define self renewal (in terms of unspecialised cells)

They can continuously divide and replicate

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