Abdomen Flashcards Preview

Ambulance Study Notes > Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdomen Deck (33):
1

What are some signs of a bowel obstruction?

Abdominal distension
Abdominal pain
Cramping
Breath odour
Constipation
Diarrhoea
Vomiting

2

What is a bowel obstruction?

A partial or complete blockage that limits the ability of the contents to pass through.

3

What is the Ryles Questions?

A method for abdominal exam.

4

What are the Ryles things to do for abdominal examination?

M - main site
R - radiates
C - character
S - severity
D - duration
F - frequency/pattern
S - special times
A - aggravates
R - relieve
A - associated symptoms

5

What are some causes of gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain?

Appendicitis
Pancreatitis
Gallstones
Peptic ulcer
Gut ischaemia/infarction
Intestinal obstruction
Bowel obstruction
Peritonitis

6

What are some causes of non gastrointestinal abdominal pain?

AAA
Renal colic
Ectopic pregnancy
MI
Ovarian cysts

7

What are some causes of nausea & vomiting?

Gastroenteritis
Drugs or alcohol
Pain
Shock
Fear
Anxiety
Movement
Vertigo
Bulimia
Pregnancy
Renal failure

8

What are some causes of gastrointestinal bleeding?

Ulcers
Oesophageal varices
AAA
Haemorrhoids
Fissures


9

What is haematemesis?

Bright red or coffee colored blood that is vomited.

10

What is haematochezia?

Bright red blood in the stools

11

What is Melena?

Dark, tarry blood in the stools.

12

What is jaundice?

Yellowish tinge to skin and sclera of eyes.

13

What is involved in the abdominal examination in addition to questioning the patient?

Vital signs
Hydration - check tongue
Inspect
fat
fetus
fluid
faeces
flatus (gas in bowel)
Palpating
Percussion
Auscultation

14

What is gastritis?

An irritation or inflammation of the lining of the stomach.

15

What is choleocystitis?

Inflammation of the gallbladder.

16

What are some signs and symptoms of choleocystitis?

Unrelieved indigestion like pain
Right lower rib pain
Abdominal muscle spasms
Pallor
Clam mines
Nausea
Vomiting

17

What are some signs of gastrointestinal bleeding?

Blood in vomit or stools
Indigestion
Abdomen tenderness
Abdomen rigidity
Fainting
Nausea
Vomiting
Sock symptoms

18

What is an ectopic pregnancy?

Implantation of a fertilized ovum outside of the uterus.

19

What are the signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy?

Pelvic pain widespread or localized
Referred pain to the shoulder
Vaginal bleeding
Syncope
Missed period
Shock

20

What is Crohn's disease?

Recurrent inflammatory response
Affects gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus

21

What are the signs and symptoms of Crohn's disease.

Intermittent diarrhea
Colicky pain
Weight loss
Fluid
Weakness
Low grade fever
Other symptoms
nausea
vomiting
gastrointestinal bleeding
abdo cramps
fever

22

What is renal colic?

Renal stones pain

23

What pain symptoms would renal colic give?

Intermittent
Excruciating
In flank and upper outer quadrant
Radiate to:
lower abdomen
bladder
perineum
scrotum

24

What are some other symptoms of renal colic other than pain?

Cool, clammy skin
Nausea
Vomiting
Difficulty passing urine
Pain passing urine

25

Describe what bowel obstructions are?

Blockages in the hollow spaces of the intestines.

26

What are the two types of bowel obstruction?

Partial and complete

27

What are the signs and symptoms of a bowel obstruction?

Vomiting (can smell of faecal matter)
Widespread pain
Shock
Altered LOC
Swollen abdomen
Guarding
Rigidity
Tenderness

28

What is diverticulitis disease?

Mucosal layer of colon protrudes through the muscular layer of the intestine and forms a pouch.

29

What are the signs and symptoms of diverticular disease?

Pain - colicky and last for several days
Pain localized to lower left quadrant
Slight fever
Nausea
Vomiting

30

Describe the signs and symptoms of pancreatitis?

Sudden onset pain
Epigastric pain - radiates to abdomen and back
Pain worse when lying flat
Pain worse on coughing, deep breathing, sudden movement
Relief from sitting up or leaning forward
Nausea
Vomiting
Pallor
Clammy
Tachycardia
Tachyponoea

31

What is an aneurysm?

An abnormal localised stretching of a blood vessel

32

Where may pain start for appendicitis?

Umbilical or epigastric

33

If pain is felt in an area different to where the problem is, what type of pain is this known as?

Referred pain

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