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Flashcards in Children Deck (32):
1

What are some signs of child abuse?

bruises
burns
scolds
fractures
head injury
lack of attachment to parent/caregiver
changing story
delay in calling for help
multiple injuries

2

What is croup?

A viral infection of the upper airway.

3

What does croup sound like?

Seal bark.

4

Does a child with severe croup have stridor or a wheeze?

Stridor.

5

What is epiglottitis?

Infection of the epiglottis.

6

What are the signs and symptoms of epiglottitis?

appears like croup
painful to swallow
drooling
fever
breathing through mouth
tripod position
inspiratory stridor
respiratory distress

7

How do you treat epiglottitis?

Call for ALS backup.
Do NOT use any LMA's or OPA's (nothing to go in mouth)

8

What do you do if a patient has stridor at rest?

Call for backup.

9

What does ALTE mean with regards to pediatrics?

Apparent Life Threatening Event

9

What must an EMT do if a parent/caregiver refuses treatment for a child?

Contact duty manager if neccesary or regional medical advisor for advice.

10

How do you treat poisoning in a child?

Ring poisons centre for advice.
Find poisoning agent.
Transport to hospital (child and poison)

11

What causes a febrile seizure?

The brain is not developed properly so the child is unable to regulate their temperature yet.

12

What is the treatment for a febrile seizure?

Cool by passive cooling.
Paracetamol if indicated.
Transport to hospital - to rule out more serious possibilities eg menningoccocal.

13

What are some signs of a febrile seizure?

Sudden spike in temperature.
Short and self limiting seizure - generally less than 1 minute.

15

What are some common causes of breathing problems in children?

asthma
bronciolitis
influenza
pneumonia
croup
chronic lung disease (premature babies)

16

What are the signs and symptoms of respiratory distress in a child?

increased respiratory rate
nasal flaring
head bobbing
grunting
retraction around the ribs
increased heart rate
low SPO2

16

What are the two situations with children that can eventually lead to respiratory arrest & cardiac arrest?

Respiratory distress
Shock

17

What are the signs of respiratory failure in a child?

drowsiness
altered LOC
cyanosis
hypoxia (low level of oxygen in the blood)
slow respiration
slow pulse

19

What are some reasons for tachycardia in children?

shock
fever
crying
pain
anxiety

20

What are some causes of shock in children?

blood loss
dehydrations (vomiting/diarrhoea)
infection
allergies
poisoning
dysrhythmias

21

What are the signs of compensated shock in children?

increased heart rate
increased respiratory rate
increased cap refill > 2 seconds
cool extremities
decreased urine output
blood pressure may be normal

22

What are the signs of decompensated shock in children?

drowsy or lethargic
heart rate (fast or slow)
mottled or dusky peripheral skin
very long cap refill time
blood pressure is low

23

What are the things you should look for when assessing a child patient?

Pediatric Assessment Triangle
Breathing
Circulation
Appearance

24

In the paediatric triangle - what do you look for when assessing "Appearance"?

speech/cry
behaviour of child (is it normal?)
muscle tone (floppy? holding self up?)
interaction with others
irritable?
consolable?
look or gaze

24

In the paediatric triangle - what do you look for when assessing "Circulation"?

pulse rate
peripheral perfusion
capillary refill time
skin pallour
mottling
cyanosis

24

What is the age range of adolescents?

13 - 18 years

24

What is the age range of school aged children?

5 - 12 years

24

What is the age range of preschoolers?

3 - 4 years

24

What is the age range of toddlers?

1 - 2 years

25

What is the age range for neo nates?

Birth to 28 days

26

In the paediatric triangle - what do you look for when assessing "Breathing"?

respiration rate
SPO2 saturations
breathing sounds
nasal flaring
use of accessory muscles
posture
retraction

27

What are the general differences between adults and children?

In children:
larger head
narrower airways
large tongue
faster respiration rate
heart beats faster
lower blood pressure

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