Flashcards in 3.6 Traumatic Brain Injury Deck (59)
What is the weakest part of the skull and why?
The basilar skull because it is made up of many separate pieces of bone.
What cushions the brain within the skull?
What is a sign of a basilar skull fracture?
Leaking cerebrospinal fluid from the ear or nose.
What is epidural bleeding e.g. between what layers?
Between the duramater and the skull
What is subdural bleeding?
Bleeding beneath the duramater.
What is bleeding beneath the arachnoid layer called?
What are the three anatomical components of the brain?
Cerebrum, Cerebellum and Brainstem
What is another name for the cerebellum?
What part of the body do all messages from the brain pass through?
What are the meninges?
Layers protecting the brain.
What is another sign (other than leaking cerebrospinal fluid from the ears or nose) of a basilar skull fracture?
Bruising around the eyes or ears - but may take several hours to show up.
What is the pathophysiology of a TBI?
Can be direct from penetrating trauma or a blow to the head or secondary from lack of oxygen, CO2 build-up or change in blood pressure.
What is a closed head injury?
May be a laceration to the skin, but the skull remains intact.
What is an open head injury?
Break in the skull as well as the skin.
Explain what a diffuse axonal injury (DAI) to the brain is?
Injury to the brain as a result od shearing, tearing or stretching of nerve fibres.
What kind of incidences would you expect to see DAI brain injures?
Car accidents or pedestrians hit by cars.
What is a concussion?
Temporary loss of brains ability to function.
Appears immediately or soon after impact.
What is a contusion of the brain?
Bruising or swelling of the brain
What is a hematoma of the brain?
Pooling of blood within the brain
What is a laceration of the brain?
A tear in the brain tissue.
What signs and symptoms may you see in a person with concussion?
Altered LOC that slowly improves.
Unable to remember incident
What is coup and contrecoup injuries?
Damage to the brain at the point of blow and on the opposite side of the impact.
What can some signs and symptoms of a contusion of the brain be?
Profound personality change
Alteration of vital signs
What is a subdural hematoma?
Collection of blood between the dura mater and the arachnoid layer of the brain.
What generally causes subdural bleeding?
Low pressure venous bleeding
What are the two types of subdural hematoma?
Acute and Occult
What is the difference between acute and occult subdural hematomas?
Acute - signs and symptoms occur almost immediately
Occult - Bleeding occurs over time and signs and symptoms may not show for days to weeks after injury.
What are some signs and symptoms of a patient with a subdural hematoma?
Weakness or paralysis to one side of the body
Deterioration in responsiveness
Dilation of one pupil
Possible increase in systolic BP
What is an epidural hematoma?
Bleeding between the skull and dura mater.