Flashcards in Acute and Chronic Inflammation Deck (46):
Acute inflammation is usually mediated by _____ cells, while chronic inflammation is mediated by _______ cells.
neutrophils; monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes
Acute inflammation is usually from the _______ immune system, while chronic inflammation is usually from the _______ system.
Annular means ________.
Acute inflammation can be stimulated by ________.
- infections from bacteria, fungus, parasites (including the toxins from these organisms)
- trauma (mechanical, thermal)
- foreign material
List the four broad steps of inflammation.
- recognition of cellular insult
- vascular changes
- calling for back-up
- leukocyte activation
Pro-inflammatory receptors can be on __________.
the ECM surface of plasma membranes, endosomes, and in the cytosol
The complex of proteins that mediates cellular response, especially in response to stuff from dead or damaged cells. (Example, decreased intracellular K+, decreased ATP, cytosolic DNA.)
What are the two major changes involved in the vascular response to inflammation?
Increased blood flow and increased vessel permeability.
What type of blood vessels alter in response to inflammation?
Arterioles serving the capillary beds (histamine acting on smooth muscle cells is the main cause)
Permeability results from ________ cells contracting.
What are the four stages of leukocyte recruitment?
Margination/rolling, adhesion, transmigration, and chemotaxis.
What is margination?
Margination is the process by which larger material gets pushed to the sides in a laminar flow situation.
Name two molecules that participate in rolling and what signals induce them.
P-selectin (histamine) and E-selectin (IL-1)
Leukocytes alter ________ to an activated state. Expression of these molecules stops rolling.
What is the endothelial ligand for integrins (CD8/CD11)?
Transmigration occurs after __________.
the leukocyte stops rolling
Upon transmigration, leukocytes secrete _________.
enzymes (such as collagenase) that break down the basement membrane
Chemotaxis is __________.
the process in which leukocytes move down chemical gradients toward site of inflammatory stimulus
What are the four things that an activated leukocyte does upon meeting its target?
1) phagocytize material
2) secrete material to kill material
3) produce inflammatory material to amplify response
4) become poised to kill/engulf material
What are the two ways a leukocyte can bind to something?
1) binding to the material itself
2) binding to the material through opsonins (such as IgG or C3b)
NETs are ________.
neutrophil extracellular traps composed of chromatin with antimicrobial proteins embedded
______, _______, and ______ are the three possible outcomes of acute inflammation.
Resolution; scarring; chronic inflammation
Pruritis is _______.
What causes chronic infection?
- prolonged infection
- auto-immune disease
- persistent exposure to toxins
Liver monocytes are called ______ cells.
What activates macrophages in the classical pathway?
Endotoxin, interferon gamma (from T cells), and foreign material
What activates macrophages in the alternative pathway?
IL-4 and IL-13 (from T-cells, eosinophils, and mast cells)
The ______ pathway of macrophage activation leads to repair and fibrosis, while the ______ pathway leads to microbe destruction.
Which type of helper T cell recruits neutrophils and monocytes?
Th2 secretes ______.
IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 (resulting in alternate pathway activation of macrophages)
The two situations in which eosinophils are recruited are _______.
parasitic infection and allergic reaction
Mast cells become coated with _______ and release ______.
Granulomas are __________.
monocytes surrounded by lymphocytes
Source of granulomas are ___________.
- infections (tuberculosis, fungi, leprosy)
- foreign material (suture)
- autoimmune disease (Crohn's)
The three cytokines that are most responsible for systemic inflammatory effects are ________.
TNF, IL-1, and IL-6
Pyrexia is ______.
In pyrexia, the hypothalamus stimulates the production of _________, which raise the body temperature.
In response to IL-6, hepatocytes produce two proteins that are used as lab indicators of inflammation: ________.
C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum Amyloid A (SAA)
Under the influence of _______, more leukocytes are released from the bone marrow.
TNF and IL-1
Continuous inflammation leads to production of ________, leading to greater production of leukocytes.
Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF)
The inflammasome activates _________.
caspase-1 (which then activates IL-1Beta)
Which helper T cell activates the classical macrophage pathway?
Th1 (by secreting IFN-gamma)
Th17 secretes ______ which recruits _____.
IL-17 (go figure); neutrophils
______ and ________ are endogenous pyrogens.
IL-1 and TNF
Exudates result from _________.
increased vascular permeability