Flashcards in Final Exam Review Deck (48)
Which are the zinc-dependent toxins?
Botulinum and tetanus
One of the first signs of schistosomiasis infection is _________.
What are immunotoxins?
Toxins that are guided to certain cells (such as tumors) with antibodies
During the latent period, virus ____________.
is being replicated in the cell, but no virus particles are being assembled
Which toxin requires calcium and calmodulin to become active?
Antrax edema factor
What does terbinafine kill and how?
Fungus, by the accumulation of intracellular toxins
Nystatin is a ______ anti-fungal.
Bacteria that require vitamins, amino acids, and growth factors are called _______.
The _______ are the organs that are most affected by schistosomiasis infection.
liver and bladder
Bordadella pertussis works by ________.
tetM is transferred on ________.
Cholera toxin works by ______________.
raising intracellular cAMP
MacKonkey agars select for __________.
Two lactose fermentators that could be found on a MacKonkey agar are __________.
E. coli and Klebsiella
C. diphtheria toxin results from __________.
Staph food poisoning results from _______.
ingestion of preformed toxin
Glycocalyx is made by ________.
C. perfringens can also be found in _________.
Gram-negative rod with intrinsic resistance to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin?
Lacking cell wall?
Antigenically distinct pili?
Antigenically distinct capsule?
Both _____________ cannot be cultured.
chlamydia and mycoplasma
Spastic paralysis is _________, while flaccid paralysis is ________.
Describe bacteria on Hektoen agars.
Salmonella (green with black dots); Shigella (green with green dots); everything else (salmon)
The most likely bacteria to acquire erm is ______.
_______ can acquire gyrase mutations that induce resistance to fluoroquinolones.
Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive
First-generation cephalosporins have spectra of action similar to ________.
______ can acquire mutations in PBPs.
Staph, Neis, and Strep
Of cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and erythromycin, which is least effective against P. aeruginosa?
Aminoglycosides can kill ________.
Gram-negative aerobic bacilli
Which organisms can tetracyclines kill that macrolides cannot?
In addition to MSSA, ______ also contains a beta-lactamase.
Can amoxicillin kill Pseudomonas?
No! Only piperacillin can
B. fragilis can be killed by _________.
metronidazole, ertapenem, amoxicillin-clavulanate, tetracyclines, pip-taz, and clinamycin
What three drugs/drug categories kill Neisseria?
Ceftriaxone, macrolides, and tetracyclines
What three categories of drugs kill atypical bacteria?
Macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones
Which antibiotics inhibit the hepatic metabolism of co-administered drugs?
Erythromycin and metronidazole
Which fluoroquinolone is hepatically metabolized?
Which antibiotic causes oral thrush?
Doxycycline (metronidazole can exacerbate existing infections)
Aminoglycosides only treat ________.
Gram-negative aerobic bacilli
Bactrim kills _________.
Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and atypical bacteria
Which can kill Pseudomonas, tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones?
Which bacterial class is photosensitizing?
Can clindamycin kill Gram-negative rods
Only Bacteroides, but primarily just Gram-positives and anaerobes
Can vancomycin kill Bacteroides?
Compared to clarithromycin, azithromycin has the advantages of ___________.
being longer lasting, killing mycoplasma in a single dose, and does not inhibit liver enzymes