Clinical Aspects of Common Cancers Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Aspects of Common Cancers Deck (31):
1

About ____ percent of smokers will develop lung cancer.

10

2

In addition to smoking, _______ also cause lung cancer.

industrial metal gas, radon, asbestos, and uranium mining

3

The epithelium of the lung is _______.

pseudostratified ciliated columnar

4

The clinical symptoms of lung cancer include _______.

dyspnea, persistent cough, recurrent pneumonia, hoarseness, facial swelling, and weight loss

5

Define hamartoma.

(n) a benign, focal malformation that resembles a neoplasm

6

Carcinomas require ______ to achieve a cure.

surgical excision

7

_____ lung cancer is not treated surgically, only by chemotherapy.

Small-cell

8

Rarely, _______ can produce parathyroid hormone that leads to hypercalcemia.

squamous carcinoma

9

List the four major types of lung cancer.

Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma

10

Squamous carcinomas often appear ______.

white and chalky (due to keratin cell involvement)

11

_________ attempt to form mucin-producing cells.

Adenocarcinomas

12

Patients with _______ often have mutations in EGFRs and respond to _____.

adenocarcinoma; gefitinib (Iressa)

13

Crizotinib treats patients with ______.

adenocarcinomas with ALK or ROS1 mutations

14

__________ is a variant of adenocarcinoma.

Bronchoalveolar

15

Large cell carcinomas typically are ______.

highly pleiotropic and high grade

16

Small cell carcinomas have a _________.

poor prognosis--no surgical treatment with frequent metastasis to the brain

17

What are the clinical signs of pancreatic cancer?

Cachexia, painless jaundice, back pain, and migratory thrombophlebitis

18

_____ is the worse type of pancreatic cancer.

Adenocarcinoma

19

Almost all (98%) of colorectal cancers are ________.

adenocarcinomas

20

Most cases of colorectal cancer are ______, but some are genetic.

sporadic

21

There are two types of adenomatous polyps: ____________.

pedunculated tubular and sessile villous

22

There are about _______ new cases of prostate cancer in the U.S. each year.

200,000

23

What are PINs?

Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasias

24

How are Gleason grading scores done?

Take the most severe prostatic biopsy, rate it on a scale of 1-5, and add it to the second-worst site (5 is the worst)

25

Cancer kills roughly _______ Americans each year.

559,000

26

Roughly _____ percent of cancers are carcinomas.

90

27

Benign ______ can lead to life-threatening hypoglycemia.

islet cell adenoma

28

Describe some characteristics of high-grade cancers.

Pleomorphism (cytologic variability) and large nuclei

29

The most common cause of death in advanced-stage carcinoma is _____.

infection (60%)

30

_______ is the most common type of lung cancer found in women and non-smokers.

Adenocarcinoma

31

PIN (__________) is believed to be a _________.

prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia; precursor to prostate cancer

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