Flashcards in Clinical Aspects of Common Cancers Deck (31)
About ____ percent of smokers will develop lung cancer.
In addition to smoking, _______ also cause lung cancer.
industrial metal gas, radon, asbestos, and uranium mining
The epithelium of the lung is _______.
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
The clinical symptoms of lung cancer include _______.
dyspnea, persistent cough, recurrent pneumonia, hoarseness, facial swelling, and weight loss
(n) a benign, focal malformation that resembles a neoplasm
Carcinomas require ______ to achieve a cure.
_____ lung cancer is not treated surgically, only by chemotherapy.
Rarely, _______ can produce parathyroid hormone that leads to hypercalcemia.
List the four major types of lung cancer.
Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma
Squamous carcinomas often appear ______.
white and chalky (due to keratin cell involvement)
_________ attempt to form mucin-producing cells.
Patients with _______ often have mutations in EGFRs and respond to _____.
adenocarcinoma; gefitinib (Iressa)
Crizotinib treats patients with ______.
adenocarcinomas with ALK or ROS1 mutations
__________ is a variant of adenocarcinoma.
Large cell carcinomas typically are ______.
highly pleiotropic and high grade
Small cell carcinomas have a _________.
poor prognosis--no surgical treatment with frequent metastasis to the brain
What are the clinical signs of pancreatic cancer?
Cachexia, painless jaundice, back pain, and migratory thrombophlebitis
_____ is the worse type of pancreatic cancer.
Almost all (98%) of colorectal cancers are ________.
Most cases of colorectal cancer are ______, but some are genetic.
There are two types of adenomatous polyps: ____________.
pedunculated tubular and sessile villous
There are about _______ new cases of prostate cancer in the U.S. each year.
What are PINs?
Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasias
How are Gleason grading scores done?
Take the most severe prostatic biopsy, rate it on a scale of 1-5, and add it to the second-worst site (5 is the worst)
Cancer kills roughly _______ Americans each year.
Roughly _____ percent of cancers are carcinomas.
Benign ______ can lead to life-threatening hypoglycemia.
islet cell adenoma
Describe some characteristics of high-grade cancers.
Pleomorphism (cytologic variability) and large nuclei
The most common cause of death in advanced-stage carcinoma is _____.
_______ is the most common type of lung cancer found in women and non-smokers.