Flashcards in Malignant Tumors of the Skin Deck (18):
The majority of BCCs are due to _______.
loss of function of PTCH1, which normally blocks a transmembrane protein called smoothened
An inhibitor of SMO was recently approved, called _______, to treat BCC.
_________ is a precancerous lesion.
Actinic keratosis (treated with liquid N2)
The second-most common skin cancer is ______.
squamous cell carcinoma, second to BCC
What are the three subtypes of SCC?
Invasive, keratoacanthoma, and SCC in situ (Bowen's disease)
Skin cancer is much more common in ______ patients.
transplant patients or those who are otherwise immunosuppressed
The most important prognostic indicator of melanoma is ________.
the Breslow depth, measured from the surface of the skin to the maximum depth of the tumor
Most moles have a ______ mutation.
Kaposi's sarcoma is actually a cancer of the _______.
Most BCCs arise from mutations in the _______ pathway.
Hedgehog (resulting in overexpression of Smoothened)
Roughly 20% of actinic keratoses transform to ________.
squamous cell carcinoma
SCCs happen more commonly in ________ patients.
SCC risk usually correlates to _______, while BCC risk usually correlates to ______.
total lifetime UV exposure; intermittent sunburn frequency
Men are at an ________ risk for both subtypes of NMSC.
Smoking increases your risk of ______, but not ______.
Many tumor cells express _______, a target of immune therapy.
The most common type of melanoma is ________.