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Flashcards in Malignant Tumors of the Skin Deck (18):
1

The majority of BCCs are due to _______.

loss of function of PTCH1, which normally blocks a transmembrane protein called smoothened

2

An inhibitor of SMO was recently approved, called _______, to treat BCC.

vismodegib

3

_________ is a precancerous lesion.

Actinic keratosis (treated with liquid N2)

4

The second-most common skin cancer is ______.

squamous cell carcinoma, second to BCC

5

What are the three subtypes of SCC?

Invasive, keratoacanthoma, and SCC in situ (Bowen's disease)

6

Skin cancer is much more common in ______ patients.

transplant patients or those who are otherwise immunosuppressed

7

The most important prognostic indicator of melanoma is ________.

the Breslow depth, measured from the surface of the skin to the maximum depth of the tumor

8

Most moles have a ______ mutation.

BRAF

9

Kaposi's sarcoma is actually a cancer of the _______.

endothelial cells

10

Most BCCs arise from mutations in the _______ pathway.

Hedgehog (resulting in overexpression of Smoothened)

11

Roughly 20% of actinic keratoses transform to ________.

squamous cell carcinoma

12

SCCs happen more commonly in ________ patients.

immunosuppressed

13

SCC risk usually correlates to _______, while BCC risk usually correlates to ______.

total lifetime UV exposure; intermittent sunburn frequency

14

Men are at an ________ risk for both subtypes of NMSC.

increased

15

Smoking increases your risk of ______, but not ______.

SCC; BCC

16

Many tumor cells express _______, a target of immune therapy.

PD-L1

17

The most common type of melanoma is ________.

superficial spreading

18

__________ is used to treat melanoma with BRAF mutations.

Vemurafenib

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