Chemical Mediators of Inflammation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemical Mediators of Inflammation Deck (27):
1

Chemical mediators of inflammation can be ________ or _______.

cell derived; plasma-protein derived

2

Histamine functions by ________.

dilating arterioles and contracting endothelial cells

3

Serotonin leads to _______.

vasoconstriction to aid in clotting (it is present in platelet granules)

4

Arachidonic acid is derived from _________.

membrane lipids (cleaved by phospholipase)

5

Arachidonic acid is catalyzed by __________, an enzyme inhibited by aspirin and other NSAIDs.

cyclooxygenase (leading to thromboxanes and prostaglandins) and lipoxygenase (resulting in leukotrienes and lipoxins)

6

Glucocorticords inhibit the _______ of the prostaglandin pathway.

phospholipase that produces arachidonic acid

7

______ stimulates the growth and function of T cells.

IL-12

8

What is the first enzyme in the lipoxin/leukotriene pathway?

5-lipoxygenase

9

Lipoxins ___________.

antagonize leukotrienes and act as anti-inflammatory molecules

10

Leukotrienes serve as ____________.

chemotactic agents for neutrophils and inducers of vascular permeability

11

Platelet-activating factor ____________.

is also derived from membranes (by phospholipases) that induces platelet aggregation, bronchoconstriction, vascular permeability, vasodilation

12

IL-1 and TNF, released by macrophages in acute inflammation, stimulate ________.

endothelial activation, systemic effects of inflammation (fever), and T cell activation

13

In addition to vasodilation, NO also antagonizes ______.

platelet activation

14

The initiating factor in the complement cascade is ______.

C3 convertase activation (which cleaves C3 into C3a and C3b)

15

Complement can be activated by ________.

1) classical (antigen-antibody complexes)
2) pathogen surfaces
3) mannose-binding lectin (lectin binds to microbial mannose)

16

C3b binds to C3 convertase to become ______.

C5

17

In the plasma protein mediator system, factor XII (the Hageman factor) activates the _____ system.

kinin (leads to increased vascular permeability)

18

List some anti-inflammatory factors.

lipoxins, C1 inhibitors, IL-10, and TGF-beta

19

Mast cells release histamine in response to __________.

IgE; mechanical or thermal trauma; neuropeptides; cytokines; IL-1 and IL-8

20

The two important chronic-inflammation mediators are ______.

IL-12 and IFN-gamma

21

NO functions in inflammation by _________.

acting as a free-radical, mediating vasodilation, antagonizing platelet aggregation, and reducing leukocyte recruitment

22

Alpha-1-antitrypsin inhibits _______ and alpha-2-macroglobulin inhibits __________.

elastase released by neutrophils; many proteases, including collagenase

23

Neuropeptides are particularly active in _______, and include ________, a polypeptide that stimulates inflammation in epithelial and immune cells.

the lungs and GI tract; Substance P

24

C3b binds to ______ and initiates _____.

C3 convertase; conversion of C5 to C5b (which activates the MAC) and C5a, a chemotactic and anaphylatic signal

25

Bradykinin leads to __________.

increased vascular permeability, dilation, and pain

26

Factor XII activates the __________.

clotting cascade

27

_____ down regulates macrophages.

IL-10

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