Antibacterial Agents IV Flashcards Preview

MS1 - Disease & Defense > Antibacterial Agents IV > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibacterial Agents IV Deck (28):
1

What three fluoroquinolones do we need to know for class?

Levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin

2

What combination of DNA precursor methylation is bactericidal?

Trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole, because they inhibit sequential steps of the pathway

3

Lower UTIs are called cystitis and require __________; upper UTIs (pyelonephritis) require _________.

nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; fluoroquinolones (or AGs, or ceftriaxone if resistance is suspected)

4

Antacids will decrease the bioavailability of ____________.

fluoroquinolones and penicillins

5

The big resistance mechanism for fluoroquinolones is _________.

changing the target (DNA gyrase)

6

Fluoroquinolones have ________ absorption and distribution.

good (very minimal protein binding)

7

The two fluoroquinolones that are impacted by renal dysfunction are ___________.

ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, but not for moxifloxacin

8

The only fluoroquinolones that can kill anaerobic bacteria and atypical bacteria are _________.

moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin

9

Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin can kill __________.

Gram positive cocci

10

Levofloxacin is unique among the fluoroquinolones for its ability to kill _________.

Gram negative cocci

11

Only _________ can kill Gram positive rods (within the fluoroquinolone group).

ciprofloxacin

12

Levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin can kill _______.

Gram negative rods

13

Overall, fluoroquinolones are ________ tolerated.

well (slight increase in risk of tendon rupture)

14

Nitrofurantoin is toxic in those with _________.

renal insufficiency

15

Nitrofurantoins only kill ________.

Gram negative bacilli (not Neisseria)

16

Because they are so quickly excreted, nitrofurantoins have adverse side effects like ___________.

GI upset, anorexia, nephropathy with chronic use, vomiting, and diarrhea

17

Metronidazole treats __________.

protozoa and anaerobic bacteria

18

Metronidazole's side effects include ___________.

nausea, headache, metallic taste, exacerbation of candidiasis infections (furry tongue), and Antabuse-like effect

19

Which drug inhibits dihydrofolate reductase?

Trimethoprim

20

Do not use sulfonamides in _________.

babies or pregnant women, because it raises the risk of kernicterus

21

What enzyme does sulfonamide target?

Dihydropteroate synthetase

22

The only two fluoroquinolones that can treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa are ________.

ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin

23

Which antibiotic colors the urine brown?

Nitrofurantoin

24

Where does metronidazole distribute to?

Everywhere, including CSF and bone

25

What is the trade name for TMP-SMX?

Bactrim (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)

26

TMP-SMX kills ___________.

Gram-positive, Gram-negative, atypical, and anaerobic bacteria (including MRSA and Pseudo, except systemically)

27

List the two drug interactions and the one absorption factor relevant to fluoroquinolones.

Theophylline/caffeine; antacids

28

Can clindamycin kill Gram-negative bacteria?

No!

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