Flashcards in Cell Growth and Neoplasia Deck (20):
Give an example of physiologic hypertrophy.
The uterus expanding during pregnancy
Give an example of pathologic hypertrophy.
The heart expanding during prolonged hypertension
______ is an example of physiologic hyperplasia.
Breast growth during puperty
In Barrett's esophagus, normal ______ cells transition to ______ cells.
squamous; columnar (intestinal are higher risk than gastric)
Smokers often have a type of metaplasia in which _________.
normal, columnar bronchus cells transition to squamous cells
Although we often think of cell-autonomous factors with neoplasia, like ______, there are also extrinsic causes such as ______.
oncogenes and tumor suppressors; circulation of cytokines or changes in the micro-environment
List some features of benign neoplasms.
Well differentiated, low rate of cell turnover, cytologic uniformity, boundary between neoplasm and surrounding tissue, less necrosis.
List some features of malignant neoplasms.
Varying differentiation, high rate of turnover, cytologic polymorphism, less boundary between neoplasm and surrounding tissue, common necrosis.
Sarcomas are ______.
malignant tissues of mesenchymal origin (e.g., osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma)
Carcinomas are ________.
malignant neoplasms of epithelial origin (e.g., adenocarcinoma)
Adenomas are _________.
neoplasms of glandular tissue
Give some examples of benign neoplasias of mesenchymal origin.
Fibroma, osteoma, chondroma
Asbestos increases the incidence of _______.
mesothelioma in the lungs
Inflammatory bowel disease leads to a _______.
20-fold increase in the relative risk for colorectal cancer
List the six characteristic actions of cancer.
Evades apoptosis, sustains angiogenesis, invades tissue, is insensitive to anti-growth signals, has a limitless replication potential, and can self-signal for growth
Cancers of _____ tissue are most common.
epithelia (which are carcinomas)
Dysplasia is _____.
disordered growth (as evinced by loss of cytologic uniformity, loss of cell architecture)
Low-grade histologic indicates ______.
high degree of differentiation
High-grade histology indicates _______.
low degree of differentiation (worse prognosis)