Hemodynamic Basis of Disease Flashcards Preview

MS1 - Disease & Defense > Hemodynamic Basis of Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hemodynamic Basis of Disease Deck (26):
1

What is oncotic pressure?

The osmotic pressure that pulls fluid into the capillaries

2

List the four reasons fluid accumulates in the interstitial spaces.

* Increase in hydrostatic capillary pressure* Decrease in plasma osmotic pressure* Increased vascular permeability* Fluid excess beyond lymphatic drainage capacity

3

What is the extravasation of fluid due to increased hydrostatic pressure or reduced oncotic pressure called?

Transudate

4

Fluid loss due to increased vascular permeability is called _______.

exudate

5

Vascular permeability is increased by ______ or _________.

inflammation; direct damage to vascular endothelial cells

6

______ has a higher specific gravity than _______ due to excess protein.

Exudates; transudate

7

The ratio of protein concentration (of fluid/serum) is _____ in transudates and _____ in exudates.

0.5

8

Glucose is typically ______ in exudates, because more metabolism occurs in exudation.

lower

9

There are two kinds of increased blood volume: __________.

hyperemia (active, to fight infection, due to arteriole dilation) and congestion (passive, pathologic, due to venous impairment)

10

Right heart failure leads to _________.

backup in the venous system, particularly accumulating in the liver ("nutmeg" liver), and thence the spleen, GI tract, and ascites

11

Ascites is essentially _________.

abdominal effusion

12

Left heart failure leads to _________.

pulmonary effusion, pulmonary edema, and decreased renal blood flow, which results in fluid retention

13

Petechiae are _______.

small, pinpoint hemorrhages (1-2 mm)

14

Purpura are _________.

hemorrhages >3 mm and

15

Echymoses are ________.

hemorrhages 1-2 cm

16

Hematomas are _______.

accumulations of blood within tissue

17

What are the three main categories of thrombosis?

* endothelial injury* abnormal blood flow (stasis, turbulence)* hypercoagulability (inherited, acquired)

18

A thrombus is _______, while an embolus is a ________.

a mass on the wall of a blood vessel; free-flowing mass

19

DVT stands for _______.

deep vein thrombosis

20

DIC is a syndrome in which ___________.

coagulation consumes platelet store, and then hemorrhage occurs at other sites (stands for disseminated intravascular coagulation)

21

Define infarction.

(n) tissue necrosis caused by vessel occlusion; most often results in coagulative necrosis (exception -- brain = liquefactive)

22

Shock is ________.

insufficient blood volume or blood pressure to perfuse tissues

23

Septic shock is ________.

a subset of shock caused by microbial infection; indicated by elevated SIRS markers

24

Accumulated fluid in tissue is called ______, while accumulated tissue in a body cavity is called ______.

edema; effusion

25

Decreased oncotic pressure can be the product of ________.

excessive protein loss from the GI tract or urinary excretion, or decreased plasma protein synthesis

26

Most infarcts are roughly ______-shaped, due to the arborization of arterial blood vessels. Hemorrhages are not.

wedge

Decks in MS1 - Disease & Defense Class (59):