Flashcards in Hemodynamic Basis of Disease Deck (26)
What is oncotic pressure?
The osmotic pressure that pulls fluid into the capillaries
List the four reasons fluid accumulates in the interstitial spaces.
* Increase in hydrostatic capillary pressure* Decrease in plasma osmotic pressure* Increased vascular permeability* Fluid excess beyond lymphatic drainage capacity
What is the extravasation of fluid due to increased hydrostatic pressure or reduced oncotic pressure called?
Fluid loss due to increased vascular permeability is called _______.
Vascular permeability is increased by ______ or _________.
inflammation; direct damage to vascular endothelial cells
______ has a higher specific gravity than _______ due to excess protein.
The ratio of protein concentration (of fluid/serum) is _____ in transudates and _____ in exudates.
Glucose is typically ______ in exudates, because more metabolism occurs in exudation.
There are two kinds of increased blood volume: __________.
hyperemia (active, to fight infection, due to arteriole dilation) and congestion (passive, pathologic, due to venous impairment)
Right heart failure leads to _________.
backup in the venous system, particularly accumulating in the liver ("nutmeg" liver), and thence the spleen, GI tract, and ascites
Ascites is essentially _________.
Left heart failure leads to _________.
pulmonary effusion, pulmonary edema, and decreased renal blood flow, which results in fluid retention
Petechiae are _______.
small, pinpoint hemorrhages (1-2 mm)
Purpura are _________.
hemorrhages >3 mm and
Echymoses are ________.
hemorrhages 1-2 cm
Hematomas are _______.
accumulations of blood within tissue
What are the three main categories of thrombosis?
* endothelial injury* abnormal blood flow (stasis, turbulence)* hypercoagulability (inherited, acquired)
A thrombus is _______, while an embolus is a ________.
a mass on the wall of a blood vessel; free-flowing mass
DVT stands for _______.
deep vein thrombosis
DIC is a syndrome in which ___________.
coagulation consumes platelet store, and then hemorrhage occurs at other sites (stands for disseminated intravascular coagulation)
(n) tissue necrosis caused by vessel occlusion; most often results in coagulative necrosis (exception -- brain = liquefactive)
Shock is ________.
insufficient blood volume or blood pressure to perfuse tissues
Septic shock is ________.
a subset of shock caused by microbial infection; indicated by elevated SIRS markers
Accumulated fluid in tissue is called ______, while accumulated tissue in a body cavity is called ______.
Decreased oncotic pressure can be the product of ________.
excessive protein loss from the GI tract or urinary excretion, or decreased plasma protein synthesis