Flashcards in Anti-Tumor Agents Deck (21):
Roughly ____ of all leukemia and lymphoma patients are cured.
Neoadjuvant therapy is _______.
treating someone with chemotherapy prior to surgery or radiation (for anal, bladder, breast, esophageal, head and neck, gastric, rectal, and osteosarcoma)
Adjuvant therapy is _______.
drug treatment after surgery or radiation
Chemotherapy is difficult because ________.
most chemotherapeutics have small therapeutic windows, side effects vary, and patients have different pharmacokinetics (due to renal or hepatic dysfunction)
When combining chemotherapies, avoid mixing drugs that have _________.
similar toxic effects, for instance two drugs that impact kidney function
Generally, oncologists give patients the _______ of traditional, cytotoxic agents.
maximally targeted dose
The most frequently used alkylating agent is ________.
Patients with up-regulated concentrations of glutathione or aldehyde dehydrogenase are resistant to ________.
alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide
Cisplatins work by __________.
cross-linking DNA strands
______ are toxic to the kidneys and ears.
5-fluorouracil works by ________.
mimicking DNA imperfectly, leading to DNA damage and apoptosis
Doxorubicin is a ______.
topoisomerase II inhibitor
VIncristine and vinblastine are _________.
Paclitaxol and docetaxel are ______.
Drug resistance to chemotherapies can occur by ________.
mutations that deactivate the drug, alter the drug target, respond adaptively to the drug target, or resist apoptosis
How to alkylating agents work?
They introduce DNA damage that can signal the cell to apoptose (if apoptosis pathways are not mutated)
Alkylating agents can be neutralized by _______.
cellular molecules like glutathione
The platins are very toxic to the _________.
kidneys and inner ears
_________ can cause secondary malignancies.
List three side effects of taxanes.
Neutropenia, alopecia, and peripheral neuropathy