Bacterial Structure, Function, and Growth Flashcards Preview

MS1 - Disease & Defense > Bacterial Structure, Function, and Growth > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacterial Structure, Function, and Growth Deck (26):
1

Why is the peptidoglycan layer such a great target for antimicrobial drugs?

Because it is unique to bacteria and (usually) required.

2

What eukaryotic protein attacks the peptidoglycan layer?

Lysozyme, by hydrolyzing the bond between N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid

3

The building blocks of peptidoglycan are _________.

N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNac)

4

Lipopolysaccharide is the _________.

main lipid of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane

5

Lipopolysaccharide is also called ________.

endotoxin

6

Other than endotoxin, the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria contains _______.

porins and lipoprotein

7

What does lipoprotein do?

It anchors the outer membrane to the peptidoglycan of the inter-membrane space

8

Describe the composition of LPS.

It connects to the outer membrane via three phospholipids (a disaccharide phospholipid called lipid A), which then connects to a core polysaccharide and finally (most distally) a repeating oligosaccharide unit called O antigen

9

What is the toxic component of LPS?

Lipid A (the disaccharide phospholipid)

10

What two vaccines (mentioned in class) are anti-capsular antibodies?

Pneumococcus and hemophilus influenzae type B

11

Bacteria secrete a slime called ________ that allows them to stick to ________.

glycocalyx; host cells, the world, and/or each other

12

Biofilm (glycocalyx) protects bacteria from _______.

phagocytosis, complement, and antimicrobial agents

13

List the functions of bacterial secretion systems.

(1) deliver proteins to the cell surface; (2) assemble organelles on the cell surface; (3) export proteins to the extracellular environment; and (4) inject proteins or DNA into other cells.

14

Describe the structure of secretion-system proteins.

They have inner-membrane rings, outer-membrane rings, and needles.

15

List the eukaryotic proteins that are analogous to MreB, CreS, and FtsZ.

FtsZ - tubulin; MreB - actin; CreS - intermediate filaments

16

Although both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have peptidoglycan, Gram-positive bacteria ___________.

have more, and the peptidoglycan is more extensively cross-linked

17

Teichoic acids are found on _________ bacteria and function to help __________.

Gram-positive; stabilize the outer membrane

18

Lipoteichoic acids connect to the _________.

lipid membrane

19

Capsules are composed of _________.

complex polysaccharides

20

____________ flagellar movement results in movement.

Counterclockwise

21

The cytoplasmic membranes (inner) of bacteria contains no _______, unlike animal cells.

sterols

22

Bacterial membranes are impermeable to ______ molecules.

charged

23

Heterotrophic bacteria require ________, while autotrophic bacteria require _______.

organic carbon; CO2

24

List the categories of O2 requirement.

Strict aerobe (requires O2, will die without); strict anerobe (does not require O2, will die with O2); indifferent anerobe (does not need O2, but can survive in the presence of O2); facultative anerobe (usually needs O2, but can survive without)

25

The beta-lactams (penicillin, cephalosporin), vancomycin, and cycloserine all inhibit ________.

formation of the peptidoglycan layer

26

Endospores are produced by some _________ bacteria.

Gram-positive

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