Flashcards in Anxiety Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder Deck (68)
When is the amygdala most active during presentation of phobias?
Before the patient is shown the phobia
Dendritic spine number in ASD patients overtime
Rises above normal in childhood and stays that way through adulthood
What can carbon dioxide cause?
How do PTSD patients end up with a smaller hippocampus?
They may be born with it and it shrinks more with stressful situations
Have meds to treat core behavior issues been effective in ASD treatment
When does anxiety become a problem?
When it is in control; we cant control it
What happens with the HPA axis in anxiety?
The amygdala sends a stronger response (ends up eventually causing more cort)
Hippocampus of PTSD patients
How can a panic attack be stopped?
Trying to slow things down and regain control
What does research not support in ASD diets?
gluten and casein free diets not supported
Development of PTSD pathway
Stress sensitivity, over consolidation of fear, generalization of fear cues, impaired extinction of fear memories
What do smaller hippocampi of PTSD patients cause?
Impaired negative feedback from hippocampus to HPA axis which leads to excessive cort release
Stress response just from your thoughts
How early can ASD be diagnosed? More in boys or girls?
As early as 18 months. Boys 4 times more likely
Minicolumn differences in ASD patients
Minicolumns are much more dense in ASD patients
Meds approved for self-injurious behavior in ASD
Sources of genetic mutations in ASD
15% Mendelian disorders/mutations
5% rare and de novo mutations
3% chromosome abnormalities
Medications other than GABA-A agonists used to treat anxiety
Beta blockers (epinephrine/NE antagonist) and antidepressants (SSRIs)
Sudden onset of very strong intense fear of discomfort, strong sympathetic nervous system arousal, hyperventilation
These genes regulate brain development and synaptic changes and are likely related to ASD
4 major specific phobia categories
Natural environment, animals, mutilation/medical treatments, situations
Parts of the brain with structural abnormalities in ASD
Cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus
Strong negative emotion and physiological sensations from the anticipation of threat
VR exposure therapy, MDMA assisted therapy, psychotherapy
Does the GABA-A receptor depolarize or hyperpolarize?
Hyperpolarize. Allows Cl- in
What do benzodiazepines increase at the GABA-A receptor? IMPORTANT
Increase frequency of opening Cl- channel
What could inappropriate levels of GABA inhibition cause?
A person to overreact to a perceived threat
Region of amygdala that receives inputs?
Where are abnormalities seen in anxiety disorders?
Pathways connecting brainstem, amygdala, and related subcortical structures and decision making areas of frontal lobes, HPA axis, and NE, 5HT, and GABA NT systems