Anxiety Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anxiety Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder Deck (68)
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1

When is the amygdala most active during presentation of phobias?

Before the patient is shown the phobia

2

Dendritic spine number in ASD patients overtime

Rises above normal in childhood and stays that way through adulthood

3

What can carbon dioxide cause?

Panic attacks

4

How do PTSD patients end up with a smaller hippocampus?

They may be born with it and it shrinks more with stressful situations

5

Have meds to treat core behavior issues been effective in ASD treatment

No

6

When does anxiety become a problem?

When it is in control; we cant control it

7

What happens with the HPA axis in anxiety?

The amygdala sends a stronger response (ends up eventually causing more cort)

8

Hippocampus of PTSD patients

Much smaller

9

How can a panic attack be stopped?

Trying to slow things down and regain control

10

What does research not support in ASD diets?

gluten and casein free diets not supported

11

Development of PTSD pathway

Stress sensitivity, over consolidation of fear, generalization of fear cues, impaired extinction of fear memories

12

What do smaller hippocampi of PTSD patients cause?

Impaired negative feedback from hippocampus to HPA axis which leads to excessive cort release

13

Stress response just from your thoughts

Anxiety

14

How early can ASD be diagnosed? More in boys or girls?

As early as 18 months. Boys 4 times more likely

15

Minicolumn differences in ASD patients

Minicolumns are much more dense in ASD patients

16

Meds approved for self-injurious behavior in ASD

Antipsychotics

17

Sources of genetic mutations in ASD

77% unknown
15% Mendelian disorders/mutations
5% rare and de novo mutations
3% chromosome abnormalities

18

Medications other than GABA-A agonists used to treat anxiety

Beta blockers (epinephrine/NE antagonist) and antidepressants (SSRIs)

19

Sudden onset of very strong intense fear of discomfort, strong sympathetic nervous system arousal, hyperventilation

Panic attack

20

These genes regulate brain development and synaptic changes and are likely related to ASD

Candidate genes

21

4 major specific phobia categories

Natural environment, animals, mutilation/medical treatments, situations

22

Parts of the brain with structural abnormalities in ASD

Cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus

23

Strong negative emotion and physiological sensations from the anticipation of threat

Anxiety disorders

24

VR exposure therapy, MDMA assisted therapy, psychotherapy

PTSD treatments

25

Does the GABA-A receptor depolarize or hyperpolarize?

Hyperpolarize. Allows Cl- in

26

What do benzodiazepines increase at the GABA-A receptor? IMPORTANT

Increase frequency of opening Cl- channel

27

What could inappropriate levels of GABA inhibition cause?

A person to overreact to a perceived threat

28

Region of amygdala that receives inputs?

Lateral nucleus

29

Where are abnormalities seen in anxiety disorders?

Pathways connecting brainstem, amygdala, and related subcortical structures and decision making areas of frontal lobes, HPA axis, and NE, 5HT, and GABA NT systems

30

How is ASD treated not with meds?

Intensive, early childhood learning experiences provided during most of the childs waking hours

31

There are lower levels of this NT in ASD

Oxytocin

32

Could be a risk factor for PTSD, a result, or both

Lower gray matter volume

33

Generalization and how its related to PTSD

PTSD patients show fear in response to stimuli similar to the one that first caused the PTSD

34

Stimulation of locus coeruleus (NE) causes this

Panic attack

35

Abnormal versions of this glial cell are in ASD patients

Abnormal microglia

36

This is more active in ASD

Default mode network (DMN)

37

Repeated panic attacks followed by at least one month of worrying about another panic attack

Panic disorder

38

Uncontrolled chronic worry, catastrophizing, physical symptoms create anxiety spiral

Generalized anxiety disorder

39

What happens in generalized anxiety disorder?

Hypoactivity, reduced inhibition of the amygdala which then overexcites the HPA axis and sympathetic nervous system

40

Do ASD brains have more or less lateralization?

More (more symmetry)

41

How has autism prevalence risen over the last 40 years and why?

It has gone way up due to rise in incidence in general and relaxation of diagnostic criteria

42

Dysfunctions of this can be seen in ASD patients (debated)

Dysfunctions in mirror system function (debated)

43

How can postnatal factors influence gut microbiota and thus ASD

Child delivery method, feeding method (breast/formula), use of pre/probiotic supplements and/or antibiotics

44

What happens in the body during a panic attack that is counterproductive?

The body does things that won't help you calm down like hyperventilating (trying to breathe more)

45

Normal response to genuine danger

Fear

46

Has a high comorbidity with anxiety disorder or other mood disorders

Panic disorder

47

Drugs that reduce anxiety

Anxiolytics

48

Associated with agoraphobia

Panic disorder

49

2 core symptoms of ASD

Social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors

50

Childhood brain development in ASD and what does this cause/what causes this?

Brain development is abnormally accelerated through early childhood, producing first brain enlargement, followed by a period of deceleration. High neurotrophic levels and excess CSF

51

What do barbiturates increase at the GABA-A receptor? IMPORTANT

Increase duration of opening Cl- channel

52

What do relatives of ASD patients show and what does this help show?

Elevated levels of autistic traits. ASD is linked to genetics

53

Severe emotional disturbance after experiencing or witnessing severely stressful event

PTSD

54

Do patients with ASD show more or less autophagy?

Less. They have less pruning and end up with more dendrites

55

Higher levels of this NT are seen in ASD patents and it is due to ___

Elevated 5HT levels. Due to impaired 5HT reuptake

56

Concordance rate of ASD

76-88%

57

IV administration of sodium lactate (respiratory stimulant) causes what?

Panic attacks in individuals prone to them but not controls

58

Region of amygdala that sends outputs?

Central nucleus

59

These types of medications are specific to treating anxiety (IMPORTANT)

GABA-A agonists (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, alchohol)

60

This area has lower volume in PTSD patients

Anterior cingulate cortex

61

Classical conditioning and how it relates to the amygdala and specific phobias?

Strong stimulus becomes paired with weak stimulus that causes stronger input to lateral nucleus of amygdala which creates stronger outputs from the central nucleus of the amygdala which creates stronger signals to the periaqueductal gray region of midbrain

62

How do ASD symptoms vary?

All ASD patients have different combinations of symptoms (no combination is better or worse)

63

What does risperidone do in ASD?

Provides some therapeutic benefit (5HT antagonist)

64

What altered network communications are seen in ASD patients?

Signals are sent broken up, like a dashed line, and not outright, like a solid line

65

Marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable cued by presence or anticipation of specific object or situation

Phobia

66

Symptoms include recurring dreams, flashbacks, hyper-arousal and avoidance of stimuli associated with trauma (respond to more cues overtime), and high levels of vigilance and an impairment in daily functioning

PTSD

67

Causes can include perinatal complications, inc parental age, exposure to infection and nutritional factors, maternal use of antidepressants, gut microbiota

ASD

68

Observed brain differences in ASD patients

unusual patterns of activation and weak connections across many areas. Brain development is abnormally accelerated through early childhood, producing first brain enlargement, followed by a period of deceleration