Anxiety Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anxiety Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder Deck (68)
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1

When is the amygdala most active during presentation of phobias?

Before the patient is shown the phobia

2

Dendritic spine number in ASD patients overtime

Rises above normal in childhood and stays that way through adulthood

3

What can carbon dioxide cause?

Panic attacks

4

How do PTSD patients end up with a smaller hippocampus?

They may be born with it and it shrinks more with stressful situations

5

Have meds to treat core behavior issues been effective in ASD treatment

No

6

When does anxiety become a problem?

When it is in control; we cant control it

7

What happens with the HPA axis in anxiety?

The amygdala sends a stronger response (ends up eventually causing more cort)

8

Hippocampus of PTSD patients

Much smaller

9

How can a panic attack be stopped?

Trying to slow things down and regain control

10

What does research not support in ASD diets?

gluten and casein free diets not supported

11

Development of PTSD pathway

Stress sensitivity, over consolidation of fear, generalization of fear cues, impaired extinction of fear memories

12

What do smaller hippocampi of PTSD patients cause?

Impaired negative feedback from hippocampus to HPA axis which leads to excessive cort release

13

Stress response just from your thoughts

Anxiety

14

How early can ASD be diagnosed? More in boys or girls?

As early as 18 months. Boys 4 times more likely

15

Minicolumn differences in ASD patients

Minicolumns are much more dense in ASD patients

16

Meds approved for self-injurious behavior in ASD

Antipsychotics

17

Sources of genetic mutations in ASD

77% unknown
15% Mendelian disorders/mutations
5% rare and de novo mutations
3% chromosome abnormalities

18

Medications other than GABA-A agonists used to treat anxiety

Beta blockers (epinephrine/NE antagonist) and antidepressants (SSRIs)

19

Sudden onset of very strong intense fear of discomfort, strong sympathetic nervous system arousal, hyperventilation

Panic attack

20

These genes regulate brain development and synaptic changes and are likely related to ASD

Candidate genes

21

4 major specific phobia categories

Natural environment, animals, mutilation/medical treatments, situations

22

Parts of the brain with structural abnormalities in ASD

Cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus

23

Strong negative emotion and physiological sensations from the anticipation of threat

Anxiety disorders

24

VR exposure therapy, MDMA assisted therapy, psychotherapy

PTSD treatments

25

Does the GABA-A receptor depolarize or hyperpolarize?

Hyperpolarize. Allows Cl- in

26

What do benzodiazepines increase at the GABA-A receptor? IMPORTANT

Increase frequency of opening Cl- channel

27

What could inappropriate levels of GABA inhibition cause?

A person to overreact to a perceived threat

28

Region of amygdala that receives inputs?

Lateral nucleus

29

Where are abnormalities seen in anxiety disorders?

Pathways connecting brainstem, amygdala, and related subcortical structures and decision making areas of frontal lobes, HPA axis, and NE, 5HT, and GABA NT systems

30

How is ASD treated not with meds?

Intensive, early childhood learning experiences provided during most of the childs waking hours