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Flashcards in Neurological Disorders Deck (111)
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1

Gene that makes people more vulnerable to AD and CTE

APOE e4 variant

2

Outside the cell protein build up. AD

Amyloid B plaques

3

Inside brain

Intracerebral

4

When immune system overreacts to virus in other parts of body such as herpes, chickenpox, measles, or polio. Brain gets hit in crossfire, more common

Secondary encephalitis

5

Aneurysms (bursting of a blood vessel)

Cerebral hemorrhage

6

A neurodegenerative condition associated with aging that results in dementia

Alzheimers

7

Clear edges. Easier to remove

Non-gliomas (meningioma)

8

Always fatal, caused by prions, holes in the brain that shouldn't be there

CJD

9

80% of infected show no symptoms

West nile virus

10

Ischemia and transient ischemic attacks, infarct/penumbra, thrombosis vs embolism

Sudden blockage of a blood vessel

11

Higher risk for migraines in men or women?

Women

12

2 things that are sign of AD and contribute strongly to it

Amyloid B plaques and neurofibrillary tau tangles

13

What is Kuru?

Creutzfeldt jakob disease in Papua New Guinea tribe

14

Virtual reality therapy

Patients participate without expensive staff

15

Spread through mosquitos

West nile virus

16

Demyelination of axons that starts slow and gets more and more and affects white matter in different locations

Multiple sclerosis

17

What causes TSEs?

Prions

18

What limits chemo therapy for brain tumors?

The blood brain barrier

19

Blockage of CNS vasculature leads to this, or low oxygen levels

Ischemia

20

What causes physical damage to the brain

Open head injuries: penetration of the skull

21

Can withstand sterilization, long incubation period, no inflammation

Prion

22

Inflammation of the brain caused by viral infection

Encephalitis

23

Symptoms of fever, headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting

West nile virus

24

When virus directly invades CNS (West Nile virus)

Primary encepahlitis

25

AD treatments

Experimental antibodies targeting amyloid B clear plaques, increasing seafood/omega 3 fatty acid intake, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, antipsychotics (dopamine antagonists)

26

Repetitive unprovoked seizures

Epilepsy

27

How can the APOE e4 allele be inherited?

As a dominant trait due to mutations in either the APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2 genes

28

3 stages of CJD (kuru)

1. ambulant followed by laughing
2. sedentary (sitting/laying)
3. terminal (organ systems shut down)

29

In middle of meninges

Subarachnoid

30

Inside the cell protein clumps. Causes the cell to lose function and die. AD

Neurofibrillary tau tangles

31

Tumors that are rare, have unknown causes, radiation is a risk

Primary brain tumor

32

When do AD patients start to need care?

Moderate AD

33

Pain is like a band squeezing the head. Linked to stress

Tension headache

34

What causes 50-75% of all dementia?

Alzheimers

35

Excitotoxicity in ischemia

Oxygen starved neuron releases excessive glutamate that creates an overexcited injured neuron

36

Pain behind brow bone and or cheekbones. Linked to environment

Sinus headache

37

Flu like symptoms defined by neck stiffness, photophobia, and drowsiness

Meningitis

38

Causes increased nervousness and aggression, abnormal posture, incoordination, difficulty rising, decreased milk production, loss of body condition despite appetite

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

39

Blockage of blood vessels; lack of blood flow to affected area. 80% of strokes

Ischemic stroke

40

This is more common in higher altitudes due to lack of vitamin D due to lack of sunlight

MS

41

What are antipsychotics associated with in AD?

Earlier death

42

May lead to death of neural tissue, or infarct

Ischemia

43

Treatments for migraines

OTC pain relief (excedrin), SSRIs and triptans, botox injections, behavioral changes and avoid triggers

44

These work together to increase blood flow and pain in migraines

Trigeminovasuclar system (5HT) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)

45

Don't have clear boundaries/edges. Difficult removal

Gliomas

46

Treatments for traumatic brain injuries

Glutamate inhibitors, dopamine activity enhancers, NE reuptake inhibitors, patient and family education, virtual reality

47

Risk increases with age

Alzheimers

48

How does a stroke occur?

When the brains blood supply is interrupted by either a cerebral hemorrhage or the sudden blockage of a blood vessel

49

Types of seizure onset

Focal onset (has a specific place), generalized onset (spreads to whole hemisphere or Brian), unknown onset

50

Between dura and skull

Epidural

51

Inflammation of membranes that cover and protect the nervous system

Meningitis

52

Area of neural tissue susceptible to secondary damage that surround an infarct. Delayed damage. Ischemia

Penumbra

53

Clot floating in the blood that causes ischemia

Embolus

54

How do epilepsy medications work?

GABA agonists increase inhibition to try to bring excitation and inhibition back into balance

55

How do prions take over?

Abnormal form takes over and becomes dominant

56

How does ultrasound therapy help remove brain tumors?

Sound waves create gaps in BBB for chemo meds to get in

57

Where is the migraine generator located?

Brainstem

58

Causes atrophy of the cerebral cortex and neurodegeneration

Alzheimers

59

How do strokes effect the face?

Lateralization. They usually effect one side

60

Autoimmune condition that causes immune system to attack oligodendrocytes (myelin sheath) of CNS and Schwann cells of PNS

Multiple sclerosis

61

Bacterial (worst, has a vaccine), fungal, or viral

Meningitis

62

Clot attached to vessel wall that causes ischemia

Thrombus

63

Rupture of blood vessels; leakage of blood. 20% of strokes, more fatal

Hemorrhagic stroke

64

What are people with two copies of the e4 version of the APOE gene more likely to develop?

15 times more likely to develop AD than people without it

65

How can amyloid B plaques be found?

PET scans

66

Force can rip axons that causes problems with the vestibular system and problems walking

Axonal shear injuries

67

Two causes of ischemia

Thrombus and embolus

68

Injury at the primary site of impact

Coup

69

Core region of tissue death due to lack of oxygen. Less than 6 minutes. Ischemia

Infarct

70

Progressive cerebellar ataxia (loss of coordination/movement control) leading to death

CJD (kuru)

71

What is cognitive reserve?

People are impacted by brain injuries differently. Some people have more room for error due to brain size, synapses, IQ, education etc

72

Pain is in and around one eye. Linked to circadian rhythm

Cluster headache

73

Changes due to learning that is the target of rehabilitation. Timeline can span many years

Experience dependent neuroplasticity

74

3 types of injuries occurring to the brain

Direct impact injury, shock wave injury, and acceleration-deceleration injury (brain gets whipped around)

75

Seizures caused by flashing lights of specific intensity and frequency (3-30 Hz) that often originate in occipital lobe

Photosensitve epilepsy

76

Results in slurred speech, memory impairment, personality changes, lack of coordination, and Parkinson like symptoms

CTE/dementia pugilistica

77

Creates deeper sulci and ventricle enlargement due to loss of tissue filling in space

AD

78

Injury on opposite side from impact (the bouncing back from primary site)

Countercoup

79

Locations of hemorrhages

Intracerebral, subarachnoid, subdural, epidural

80

Pain, nausea, and visual changes are typical of classic form. Linked to neurovascular pressure/5HT

Migraine headache

81

Possible cause of multiple sclerosis

Exposure to viruses (especially Epstein-barr (mono))

82

Factors to address in neurocognitive rehabilitation

Changes to cognitive abilities, emotional changes, physical changes

83

Two types of traumatic brain injuries

Physical damage to the brain or closed head injuries

84

Surgery to treat epilepsy

Corpus callostomy

85

What is dementia?

A symptom caused by many different diseases (most often Alzheimers)

86

Free living microscopic amoeba. Brain eating amoeba

Naegleria fowleri

87

Brain tumor treatments

Surgical removal, radiation, stereotaxic radio surgery, chemo, ultrasound, thalidomide to starve tumors of blood, stem cells with anticancer genes

88

Between dura and brain

Sub dural

89

What causes closed head injuries (concussions)

Blow to the head, coup, countercoup, subdural hematoma, white matter damage

90

Diagnosed by autopsy (after death), biomarkers in CSF and blood, and PET and MRI scans

Alzheimers

91

This is more common in female but more severe in males

Multiple sclerosis

92

Treatments for epilepsy

Vagus nerve stimulation or deep brain stimulation, anti epileptic drugs, surgery, diet

93

Brain damage from repeated concussions

CTE (chronic traumatic encephalopathy)

94

APOE e4 gene and AD

Most people with AD don't have it but if you have it, its likely you will get AD

95

New treatments for ischemia

Block glutamate (antagonist or Mg) and slight hypothermia for 49-72 hours. Goal is to reduce excitotoxicity to decrease penumbra

96

Tumors that are typically encapsulated and generally do not recur following surgery (meningioma, medulloblastoma, CNS lymphoma)

Non-gliomas

97

Methods for improving cognitive function

Cognitive (top down) approach (find things that will generalize) and functional (specific tasks) approach (specific skills to help in daily life)

98

An infectious agent composed of protein in a misfolded form

Prions

99

General disturbance before migraine hits

Aura

100

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

Humans = Creutzfeldt Jakob, kuru
Animals = scrapie, mad cow, chronic wasting

101

What is the Kennard principle?

Younger brains more likely to be plastic than than older brains

102

Standard treatments for ischemia

Blood thinners and exercise/diet changes

103

Type of multiple sclerosis with continuous decline

Primary progressive MS

104

Tumors that arise from glial cells, meninges, and ependymal cells. Most common type of tumor until age 19

Secondary tumors

105

Ingestion of T. sodium eggs in contaminated pork products. Eggs hatch in stomach then larvae lodge in skin, muscle, eye and brain

Neurocysticercosis

106

Progression of Alzheimers

Mild cognitive impairment to mild AD to moderate AD to severe AD

107

Type of multiple sclerosis with periods of relief

Relapse remitting MS

108

EEG of focal onset and generalized onset in epilepsy

Focal = specific times of bursts
Generalized = all times of bursts

109

Biggest risk for vascular events

High blood pressure

110

Tumors that develop in glial cells and are about 70% of brain tumors (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, epyndymoma)

Gliomas

111

What do approved AD treatments do?

Slow down but don't revers the course of the disease