Neurons and Glia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurons and Glia Deck (79)
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1

Secretes chemicals into bloodstream

Neuroendocrine

2

Changes shape when inflammation is found. Becomes an ameboid

Microglia

3

Tripartite synapse

Formed by astrocytes to keep neurotransmitters in

4

Involved in myelination around axons

Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells

5

Reduces work done by sodium-potassium pumps

myelin

6

Single elongated process with cell body off to side (sensory receptors in joints to know if movement happened)

Pseudounipolar

7

Brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs

Efferent. Motor

8

Structural support to axon

Neurofilaments

9

Connects one neuron to another in brain or spinal cord. Vast majority of neurons.

Interneuron

10

Cytoplasm, organelles, and the nucleus are found here

Cell body (Soma)

11

Two processes separated by cell body. Often sensory

Bipolar

12

Antigen presentation allows them to recognize and destroy previously seen before bacteria

Microglia

13

Blood brain barrier

way of keeping things in the blood from the brain and brain from blood

14

10-15% of all cells in the brain

Microglia

15

Contains protein molecules, receptors, channels/pumps, transporters

Neural membrane

16

Micro and macro versions of this cell

glia

17

Contains mitochondria and synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters

Axon terminal

18

Communicate with neurons in distant areas of the nervous system

projection neurons (very long)

19

Most of the brain mass is here but there are less neurons than glia

cerebral cortex

20

No need for ion channels under these

myelin sheath

21

Starts at the axon hillock where axon join cell body

axon

22

Sensitive to type and amount of synaptic activity

Dendritic spine

23

Gaps between myelin sheaths are called

nodes of ranvier

24

Form structural matrix for neurons. Contribute to blood brain barrier. Regulate chemicals around neurons. Form scar tissue that inhibits regrowth and connectivity

Astrocytes

25

Protoplasmic astrocytes

Thick projections with many branches. Found in gray matter

26

Provides metabolic (energy -ATP) and synthetic (protein) support

Cell body (soma)

27

Conducts action potentials

axon

28

One per many dendrites

axon

29

Secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Ependymal cells

30

Selectively permeable. Allows polarization

Neural membrane

31

Fibrous astrocytes

Long and slender with less branches. Found in white matter

32

Provides insulation and allows for smaller diameter axons

myelin

33

Small amount of brain mass and very small percentage of neurons here

basal gang, dienceph, brainstem

34

Cell body to axon terminal (forward acting)

Anterograde

35

In the PNS. One cell myelinated a single axon segment

Schwann Cells

36

When an axon branches off but is still just one axon

axon collaterals

37

From brain to spinal cord

Afferent. Sensory

38

Non-neural (no action potentials)

glia

39

Primary supporting cells of the CNS

glia

40

Diameter of axon/speed relationship

Larger diameter = faster signals
Smaller diameter = slower signals

41

Damage of these is associated with multiple sclerosis

Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells

42

Which neurons are always myelinated

motor

43

Reorganization of neuronal branches

Microfilaments

44

Involved in blood brain barrier

Ependymal cells

45

Primary functioning cells of the CNS

neurons

46

Structural scaffold during early neurodevelopment

Radial glia

47

Many dendrites and a single axon. Most common

Multipolar

48

Receives integrates signals from many sources of input (integration zone)

Cell body (soma)

49

Communicate with neurons in immediate vicinity

local circuit (short)

50

In the CNS. One cell myelinated about 15 axons

Oligodendrocytes

51

Receive chemical messages from other cells, conduct post-synaptic potentials toward cell body

Dendrites

52

Most common glia coming in fibrous and protoplasmic types

Astrocytes

53

Located in the choroid plexus

Ependymal cells

54

Give more surface area to increase amount of potential inputs

Dendritic spine

55

Axon terminal to cell body (backward acting)

Retrograde

56

Shows plasticity (change over time)

Dendritic spine

57

White blood cells do the job of these everywhere but the CNS

Microglia

58

Receives thousands of inputs

Dendrites

59

Why is it easier to repair damage in the PNS as opposed to the CNS?

The oligodendrocytes in the CNS myelinate multiple axons whereas the Schwann cells in the PNS myelinate a single axon segment

60

Made of phospholipid bilayer

Neural membrane

61

Form tripartite synapse and participate in isolation and uptake

Astrocytes

62

Most of the brain neurons are here but it is a small part of the brain mass

Cerebellum

63

Six types of glial cells

Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, ependymal cells, radial glia, microglia

64

Dendritic spine degree of maturity

Mature - Immature
Mushroom spine, thin spine, stubby spine, filopodia

65

Responsible for transport of neurotransmitters and other cellular products to and from the cell body

Microtubules

66

Group of dendrites on one cell

Dendritic arborization

67

Help new neurons radiate outward and reach their final destination

Radial glia

68

These are found in the membrane lining ventricles and central canal of spinal cord

Ependymal cells

69

Information processing and communication

neurons

70

Acts to gate information flow to and from other neurons

Cell body (soma)

71

Defines intracellular/extracellular boundaries

Neural membrane

72

Small protrusion that receives input from a single axon

Dendritic spine

73

Which neurons are sometimes myelinated

sensory

74

Activated by inflammation

Microglia

75

Proliferative. Neural and glial progenitors

Radial glia

76

Immune defense in CNS

Microglia

77

General roles of glial cells

Glue. Physical and functional support functions to neurons. Help keep neurons healthy.

78

Phagocytose molecules associated with cellular damage

Microglia

79

Two types of cells in nervous system

neurons and glia