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Flashcards in Mood Disorders Deck (58)
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1

Treatments for depression that aren't psychotherapy or medications?

Aerobic exercise, mediation/mindfulness, brain stimulation, ECT, TMS, DBS. Good for body = good for mind

2

Bridge between the psychotic disorders and depressive disorders

Bipolar disorder

3

Reduced gray matter density and cortical thickness, smaller white matter volume, thinner parahippocampus, thinner right orbitofrontal cortex, thicker temporoparietal and left superior motor cortices

Bipolar disorder

4

What is important about the depression risk without any stressful life events?

It is greater than 0 for all people

5

Concordance rate among identical twins in bipolar disorder

70-80%

6

How is the HPA axis involved in MDD?

Can create increased levels of cort leading to sustained stress and depression

7

What meds are used to treat depression?

MAOI, SSRI, SNRI

8

What do effective antidepressant drugs do?

Increase monoamine activity

9

Play an essential role in regulation of sleep and wake cycles

Monoamines (5HT, SAD, NE are wake NTs)

10

Symptoms of bipolar disorder

Mania and depression

11

How does inflammation relate to depression?

Inflammation leads to dec NT metabolism, dec neurogenesis, inc glutamate excitotoxicity which leads to altered neurocircuitry which leads to depression

12

What does oxidative stress cause in bipolar disorder?

More apoptosis, higher amounts of DNA damage, accelerated aging similar to dementia

13

Functions as a hard reset of the brain. Not plan A

ECT (electroconvulsive therapy)

14

Why do depression patients show more NE and 5HT receptors but have less of the NTs?

Their bodies are trying to increase the chances of binding

15

Reduced volumes in the hippocampus and amygdala, reduced left frontal lobe activity and right parietal lobe activity, abnormal anterior cingulate cortex activity during decision making

Depression structural abnormalities

16

What stages of sleep are seen in depression patients?

No stage 3 and 4 and too much REM sleep and wakeful episodes

17

The Dutch Hunger Winter of 44-45 and depression

Stressful environment lead to more depression cases

18

What does the monoamine theory state?

Increasing monoamine activity effectively helps treat depression

19

What NTs do depression meds target?

5HT and NE (wakeful NTs)

20

Block 5HT reuptake

SSRIs

21

Block NE reuptake

SNRIs

22

What psychotherapy is used to treat depression?

CBT

23

What is oxidative stress (more free radicals) related to?

Bipolar disorder

24

Block reuptake of NE only, but have many side effects

Tricyclins

25

Better at not having sexual side effects compared to SSRIs

SNRIs

26

What often serves as a trigger for depressive episodes and why?

Stress bc of prolonged cortisol release

27

What do drugs that block neurogenesis also prevent? IMPORTANT

Therapeutic effects of antidepressants

28

What must accompany the short 5HT transporter gene for depression to come about?

Stressful life events

29

Block enzyme that degrades 5HT and NE in the terminals

MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitors)

30

What happens in accelerated aging caused by oxidative stress in bipolar disorder?

Inflammation, more amyloid and less neurotrophic activity, earlier onset and higher rates of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and autoimmune disease