Flashcards in Mood Disorders Deck (58)
Treatments for depression that aren't psychotherapy or medications?
Aerobic exercise, mediation/mindfulness, brain stimulation, ECT, TMS, DBS. Good for body = good for mind
Bridge between the psychotic disorders and depressive disorders
Reduced gray matter density and cortical thickness, smaller white matter volume, thinner parahippocampus, thinner right orbitofrontal cortex, thicker temporoparietal and left superior motor cortices
What is important about the depression risk without any stressful life events?
It is greater than 0 for all people
Concordance rate among identical twins in bipolar disorder
How is the HPA axis involved in MDD?
Can create increased levels of cort leading to sustained stress and depression
What meds are used to treat depression?
MAOI, SSRI, SNRI
What do effective antidepressant drugs do?
Increase monoamine activity
Play an essential role in regulation of sleep and wake cycles
Monoamines (5HT, SAD, NE are wake NTs)
Symptoms of bipolar disorder
Mania and depression
How does inflammation relate to depression?
Inflammation leads to dec NT metabolism, dec neurogenesis, inc glutamate excitotoxicity which leads to altered neurocircuitry which leads to depression
What does oxidative stress cause in bipolar disorder?
More apoptosis, higher amounts of DNA damage, accelerated aging similar to dementia
Functions as a hard reset of the brain. Not plan A
ECT (electroconvulsive therapy)
Why do depression patients show more NE and 5HT receptors but have less of the NTs?
Their bodies are trying to increase the chances of binding
Reduced volumes in the hippocampus and amygdala, reduced left frontal lobe activity and right parietal lobe activity, abnormal anterior cingulate cortex activity during decision making
Depression structural abnormalities
What stages of sleep are seen in depression patients?
No stage 3 and 4 and too much REM sleep and wakeful episodes
The Dutch Hunger Winter of 44-45 and depression
Stressful environment lead to more depression cases
What does the monoamine theory state?
Increasing monoamine activity effectively helps treat depression
What NTs do depression meds target?
5HT and NE (wakeful NTs)
Block 5HT reuptake
Block NE reuptake
What psychotherapy is used to treat depression?
What is oxidative stress (more free radicals) related to?
Block reuptake of NE only, but have many side effects
Better at not having sexual side effects compared to SSRIs
What often serves as a trigger for depressive episodes and why?
Stress bc of prolonged cortisol release
What do drugs that block neurogenesis also prevent? IMPORTANT
Therapeutic effects of antidepressants
What must accompany the short 5HT transporter gene for depression to come about?
Stressful life events
Block enzyme that degrades 5HT and NE in the terminals
MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitors)