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Flashcards in Pharmacology for Exam 2 Deck (63)
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1

What do non-competitive antagonists do?

They bind to a site on the receptor that keeps the channel closed but isn't the same site as the NT. When the NT binds to its site on the receptor, it does not activate and the channel stays closed

2

What do MDMA and SSRI's (Prozac, etc.) do? Agonist or antagonist?

Inhibit serotonin reuptake. Agonist

3

What does additional L-dopa do? Agonist or antagonist?

Increases dopamine production. Agonist

4

What do cocaine, amphetamines, and methylphenidate (Ritalin) do? Agonist or antagonist?

Inhibit dopamine reuptake. Agonist.

5

What two types of antagonists are there?

Competitive and non-competitive

6

What do cocaine, amphetamine, and Ritalin do?

Inhibit dopamine reuptake

7

What do SSRIs (Prozac) do?

Inhibit serotonin reuptake

8

What do migraine medications do? Agonist or antagonist?

Stimulate serotonin receptors. Agonist

9

What is an antagonist?

A drug that blocks or decreases the effect of a NT

10

What do MAO inhibitors do? Agonist or antagonist?

Interfere with the breakdown of monoamines including serotonin. Agonist

11

LOOK AT THE TWO CHARTS AT END OF NOTES

LOOK AT THE TWO CHARTS AT END OF NOTES

12

What do organophostaphates do?

They interfere with the enzyme AChE. Involved in enzyme degradation in the synapse

13

When the ligand fits perfectly with the receptor

High affinity

14

Any substance that alters the body or its functions

Drug

15

What does an increase in tryptophan from food do? Agonist or antagonist?

Increases serotonin production. Agonist

16

What do agonists do to receptors?

They activate receptors

17

Strength of association between ligand and receptor. How well it binds to the receptor

Affinity

18

What does apomorphine do? Agonist or antagonist?

Stimulates dopamine receptors. Agonist

19

Therapeutic index (wide vs narrow)

Wide is safe and narrow is risky. The line where the dose changes from mostly positive to mostly negative effects

20

What does nicotine do? Is it an agonist or antagonist?

Stimulates ACh receptors. Agonist

21

Amount of drug required to produce a certain response. Indicates power

Potency

22

Where do drugs act presynaptically?

NT production, NT storage, and NT release

23

What do drugs that treat the negative symptoms of schizophrenia do? Agonist or antagonist?

Block serotonin receptors. Antagonist

24

What may apomorphine be able to help treat?

Parkinson's disease. Not currently approved for treatment, however.

25

Drugs that block the synaptic activity by occupying a binding site different from the NT on a receptor

Competitive or non-competitive antagonists

26

Property of a drug that determines its ability to produce its biological effect. How much response we are getting

Efficacy

27

Example of a drug affecting NT storage

Reserpine (used to treat mild to moderate hypertension) affecting storage of norepinephrine. Presynaptic

28

What is ED50?

The effective dose where you get 50% of the desired response

29

What do competitive antagonists do?

They bind to the site where a NT would bind and block it from binding with the receptor. The channel stays closed

30

How do drugs affect NT storage?

They interfere with the storage of a NT in vesicles within a neuron. Presynaptic

31

What are some things the body does with drugs?

Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion

32

When the ligand fits with the receptor, but not perfectly

Medium affinity

33

What do drugs do to affect postsynaptic receptors?

Mimic the action of a NT at the site (agonist), block the synaptic activity by occupying a blinding site (competitive or non-competitive antagonist), and influence the activity of the receptor

34

Example of a drug affecting NT release

Botox. Presynaptic

35

What is the ceiling effect?

When the response to the drug levels out because the receptors are saturated

36

What does dietary choline do? Is it an agonist or antagonist?

Increases the production of ACh. Agonist

37

What is EC50?

The effective concentration where you get 50% of the desired response

38

What does curare do? Is it an agonist or antagonist?

It blocks ACh receptors. Antagonist

39

Drugs actions/effects and relationship in the removal from a synapse

Reuptake effects, enzymatic degradation, deactivation of NTs

40

What are the mechanisms for drug addiction?

By stage of NT life cycle, by interaction at specific NT synapse, prescribed medication, psychoactive drugs

41

How do agonists work?

They activate receptors and act as NTs. They block reuptake or enzymatic degradation

42

What do organophosphates do?Are they agonists or antagonists?

Block the action of acetylcholinesterase. Agonist

43

What does black widow venom do? Is it an agonist or antagonist?

Promotes ACh release. Agonist

44

How do drugs affect NT production?

They manipulate the synthesis of a NT to affect the amount available for release. Presynaptic

45

How do antagonists work?

They block receptors without activating them. They decrease the availability of NTs by reducing production of release

46

What the body does to drugs

Pharmacokinetics

47

When the ligand doesn't really fit with the receptor

Low affinity

48

What does botulin toxin do? Is it an agonist or antagonist?

It blocks the release of ACh. Antagonist

49

How do drugs affect NT release?

They can modify the release of a NT in response to the arrival of an action potential. Presynaptic

50

Is it easier for drugs to create more or less of a NT?

Easier to make it less than more. Presynaptic

51

What drugs are involved in reuptake effects?

Cocaine, amphetamine, and Ritalin inhibit dopamine reuptake.
SSRIs (Prozac) inhibit serotonin reputake

52

What does MDMA (ecstasy) do? Agonist or antagonist?

Increases serotonin release. Agonist

53

What is an agonist?

A drug that mimics or enhances the effect of a NT

54

Drugs that mimic the action of a NT at their binding site on a receptor

Agonist

55

Where do drugs act postsynaptically?

They affect postsynaptic receptors

56

What do amphetamines do? Agonist or antagonist?

Increase the release of dopamine. Agonist

57

Relationship between concentrations of drug and biological effects. What drugs do to the body

Pharmacodynamics

58

What do most traditional schizophrenia medicines do? Agonist or antagonist?

Block dopamine receptors. Antagonist

59

What do antagonists do to receptors?

They block receptors without activating them

60

What do partial agonists do?

They mimic NTs but aren't as good as a NT. Like opening a gate or channel but for not as long

61

Is it easier to make drugs influence glial cells or NTs?

NTs

62

What do full agonists do?

They mimic NTs and provide a response that is just as good as NTs

63

What does reserpine do? Agonist or antagonist?

Interferes with storage of dopamine and serotonin. Antagonist