Research Methods in Behavioral Neuroscience Flashcards Preview

Psych 3313 > Research Methods in Behavioral Neuroscience > Flashcards

Flashcards in Research Methods in Behavioral Neuroscience Deck (59)
Loading flashcards...
1

Microdialysis

Measure neurotransmitter output from local brain region

2

Histology

Microanatomy of cells

3

Sort of stains opposite nissil stains

myelin stain

4

Random which cells take the stain. Single cell. Complex structure

Golgi stain

5

What does the speed tell us when looking at research

Temporal resolution. Slow vs fast. The timing

6

Molecules tagged with radioactive isotope and injected into blood. Positrons are emitted, collide with electrons, create photons that are detectable

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

7

Individual neurons express different colors

brainbow

8

Infusion

Put chemicals directly in to local brain region. Keep it from being widespread. Only affects one area.

9

Great still image quality, no radiation. Long scan time, expensive, claustrophobic

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

10

Low vs High invasiveness

Does it require surgery?

11

Early method used to inaccurately link bumps to traits. Led to localizations

Phrenology

12

Shows structural connections

brainbow

13

Improved spatial resolution over EEG, fast temp. resolution, non-invasive. Very large, expensive, requires helium for SQUID sensor.

Magnetoencephalogram (MEG)

14

Aligns water molecules, adjusts the molecules, then takes an image

MRI

15

Criticized as "dead fish" and modern phrenology

fMRI

16

Fine wire/glass electrodes implanted into brain. Answers when action potentials correlate with behavior. Fast temporal resolution with small spatial resolution

Intracellular: Microelectrode single unit or multi unit

17

Used in gene editing: Cre-Lox recombination. Merging genetics and neuroscience

brainbow

18

Records sum total of extracellular post-synaptic potentials (not action potentials)

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

19

Piercing the skull

craniotomy

20

Nissil Stains

Cell bodies/nuclei, layers

21

Identifies neural pathways and connections

myelin stain

22

Cannulation

Insert a specialized probe

23

What does the scale tell us when looking at research

Spatial resolution. Small vs large. The zoom

24

Accessible, good for diagnosing, less claustrophobic, quick scan time. Not great quality, not often used in research, radiation exposure

CT scan

25

Microcrystalization of silver chromate

Golgi stain

26

Recorded with micro electrode arrays implanted in brain. Detects oscillatory (sinusoidal) patterns. Like sections in a stadium. When regions are synchronized in electrical communication

Extracellular: Local field potentials (LFP)

27

Light coloring shows cell bodies, dendrites

myelin stain

28

High temp. resolution, safe, portable, affordable. Low spatial resolution, can't go beyond a few mm deep, signal noise

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

29

Golgi Silver Stain

Structural. Random single cells, structural features.

30

How do you pick the right tool

depends on the population you study

31

Focusing a strong magnet to decrease or increase neural activity in a certain section

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

32

The black reaction

Golgi stain

33

What to think about when looking at research

Scale, speed, structure v function, static v dynamic, low v high invasiveness, unique risks, ethical concerns, cost, and accessibility

34

What can you do with a stereotaxic machine in surgery?

Lesion, ablation, cannulation, infusion, and microdialysis

35

Changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation closely linked with neural activity. Ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin determines areas of brain activation

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

36

Shows dark coloring that are axons, fiber tracts (white matter)

myelin stain

37

Reasons for animal models

Controlled environment, homogenous history, briefer development and lifespan, some experiments can't be ethically done on people

38

Shows bright multicolored labeling of neuronal circuits with fluorescent proteins and chemical tags

brainbow

39

Uses glass micro-pipettes to show a single ion channel open or closed

Cellular: patch clamp electrodes

40

Tells us where are connections and how do they change

Connectome mapping

41

Ethical research with humans

Institutional oversight, informed consent, minimizing pain discomfort and risk, debriefing, no coercion, confidentiality

42

Lesion

Any abnormal damage or change in tissue

43

Stains fatty myelin sheath that forms insulation around axons

myelin stain

44

Ablation

Removal of tissue. Suck it out with a vacuum

45

What machine is used in assisting brain surgery?

Stereotaxic machine

46

Sort of stains opposite myelin stains

nissil stain

47

Myelin stains

axon/fiber tracts, connections

48

Electrodes placed directly on surface of cortex. Records local field potentials, not action potentials. Usually done during brain surgery. High risk.

Cortical surface: Electrocorticogram (ECoG)

49

Answers big structural questions by combining x-ray images taken from different angles. Exposure to ionizing radiation

Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) scan

50

Structure vs Function

Structure = what does it look like
Function = what does it do

51

Two electrical stimulation methods

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and Deep brain stimulation (DBS)

52

Structural imaging tools

CT, MRI, DTI

53

Measures aggregate graded potentials (extracellular ionic flow) from many thousands of neurons. Correlates with changes in behavior and consciousness

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

54

Shows dark spots that are the rough endoplasmic reticulum in the cell nucleus (gray matter)

nissil stain

55

Uses diffusion of water to map white matter tracts throughout the brain. Connectome mapping - where do the connections form and how do they change. Normal and abnormal pathways

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)

56

Static vs Dynamic

Static = stays the same
Dynamic = Changes over time

57

Brainbow

Bright, fluorescent single cell. Certain cells color under certain conditions

58

Measures neurons electrical activity using a SQUID sensor

Magnetoencephalogram (MEG)

59

Identifies populations of cell bodies and layered structures like the cortex and hippocampus

nissil stain