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Flashcards in Electrical Neural Communication Deck (88)
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1

Hyperpolarization of dendrites and cell body

IPSP

2

These gates open near the peak of the action potential and close during after-hyperpolarization

Vg potassium channels

3

A measure of a difference in electrical potential

volt

4

What are some different ion pumps?

Sodium-potassium pump
Calcium pump

5

Tool that visualizes voltage change over time

oscilloscope

6

Can measure or record activity and can deliver electrical current (stimulate)

microelectrodes

7

When is electrochemical equilibrium achieved?

When the electrical force and concentration force are balanced. The net flux is 0

8

Combines input to same location over time. Changes how fast the input is

Temporal summation

9

Electrical force and concentration force want this ion to go in the cell, but the cell doesn't want it

Sodium

10

Usually due to the inward flow of chloride ions or outward flow of potassium ions (rare)

IPSP

11

Dendrites do not have this

Myelination

12

Is the inside of an axon positive or negative?

negative

13

The neuron can fire with a stronger stimulus, AP less likely. K channels are still open, effluxing out; too much K comes out making it go beyond resting

Relative refractory period

14

If the membrane potential becomes more positive than its is at the resting potential, the membrane is said to be this

Depolarized

15

Protein structure in cell membrane that uses energy (ATP) to move ions across the membrane. Like a salmon swimming upstream

Ion pump

16

What are the different types of ion channels?

Voltage-dependent (electrical)
Ligand-gated (chemical)
Mechanically-gated (physical)

17

Ratio of intracellular ions

Large amounts of potassium ions. Small amounts of sodium and chloride

18

The decision point of the cell

Axon hillock

19

Features of the resting potential

Neuron is polarized
Charge is around -70 mV
Selectively permeable membrane
Uneven distribution of ions on the inside vs the outside

20

What cations are involved with axons?

Potassium, sodium, and calcium

21

Increase in electrical charge across a membrane (more negative)

IPSP

22

Limits how frequently a neuron can fire, maintains unidirectionality of signals

Refractory period

23

A device that measures the difference in electrical potential between two bodies

voltmeter

24

Small analogue signals summed over time and space

EPSP/IPSP integration

25

These negatively charged molecules are unable to pass through channels and pumps

Proteins

26

What is the resting potential value for most neurons?

-70 mV

27

This toxin is found in pufferfish and block VG Na channels and prevents the flow of sodium. It prevents the rising phase of AP and causes death by paralysis

Tetrodotoxin (TTX)

28

Charge of the threshold

Around -60 mV

29

Selectively binds to VG Na channels to stop the flow of NA. Prevents the rising phase of AP. No sensory or motor function

Local anesthetics. Novocaine, lidocaine, -caine

30

What happens at leak channels?

Some sodium ions enter the cell through these leak channels